Bio Week 1

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Bio Week 1
2011-08-28 17:43:29

Lecture 1& 2 and Lab from Week 1
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  1. Define biology
    The study of life
  2. Define science
    • Method of investigation
    • removes emotions from ideas
    • ex. grapefruit or drug to prolong life for rats
  3. How do you define life? (7 categories)
    • 1. order ex. rocks, diamonds
    • 2. regulation ex. ears on rabbits
    • 3. energy processing ex. celluar respiration, photosynthesis
    • 4. growth and development ex. crystals grow into minerals, fire
    • 5. reproduction ex. sexual, fire reproduces
    • 6. response to the environment ex. fox loses white fur
    • 7. evolve: change in population over time, natural selection. individuals cant evolve in bio
  4. Different levels of complexity
    atoms-->molecules--> organelles(subcellular)--> cells (basic unit of life)-->tissues (similar cells for common purpose)--> organs (collection of tissue for common purpose)--> organism (individual)--> population (all members of one species)-->communities (diff species interacting together)--> biosphere
  5. Emergent properties
    the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. allows for why atoms work together. ex. break down car
  6. Producers/ consumers
    • Convert light to energy (photosynthesis)/animals.
    • nutrients get recycled this way.
  7. Form follows...
    • function! shape of things is important.
    • Ex. birds=large surface area due to wings, hollow bones.
    • neurons- high speed communication/ one long narrow strand to travel fastest.
    • mitochondria-inner membrane is folded to increase surface area
  8. Cell Theory
    All life is made up of 1 or more cells.
  9. What do all cells have?
    • cell membrane
    • molecule heretity (DNA)
    • ribosomes (protein synthesis)
  10. what are the two types of cells?
    prokaryotes (bacteria) and eukaryotes
  11. Prokaryotes
    • "before the nucleus"
    • no nucleus
    • no organelles
    • bacteria
    • small 0.5-10 micrometers (millionth of meter)
  12. Eukaryotes
    • "true nucleus"
    • nucleus+membrane bound organelles
    • 10-100 micrometers
  13. homeostasis
    • maintenance of internal conditions within a tolerable range
    • ex. body temperature
    • Hot--->sweat---> cool ----> ok
    • Cold--->shiver (release heat)--->warm---> ok
  14. Negative feedback
    • maintains homeostasis.
    • a change in a variable triggers a response that counteracts the change
    • ex. low blood sugar=hungry
    • when you're hot, your metabolism goes up. sweat faster and cool down.
  15. Positive feedback
    • dangerous (causes opposite of homeostasis)
    • a change in a variable triggers response a mechanism to amplify change
    • ex. sauna
    • important during: child birth (uterus contracts) and sexual response
  16. Taxonomy
    the naming and classifying of organisms (least inclusive to most inclusive)
  17. Name the 3 domains
    • Eubacteria
    • Archaea bacteria
    • Eukarya
  18. Name the 6 kingdoms and what domains they are under
    • 1. Eubacteria (d: Eubacteria, type: prokaryotes)
    • 2. Archeabacteria (d: Archeabacteria, prokaryotes)
    • 3. Protista, Fungi, Animalia, Plantae (d. Eukarya, eukaryotes)
  19. Domain: a group of related
  20. Kingdom: a group of related
  21. Phylum: a group of related
  22. Class: a group of related
  23. Order: a group of related
  24. Family: a group of related
  25. Genus: a group of related
  26. Scientific method:
    • 1. observation/problem
    • 2. hypothesis=tenative explanation or educated guess
    • 3. test/ experiment to address the hypothesis
    • 4. results
    • 5. conclusion
  27. Can a hypothesis be proven true?
    No. A hypothesis can be falsfied, but never proven true.
  28. What's the connection between hypothesis and theory?
    it is a hypothesis that has been tested many times over and never falsfied and then it may become a theory.
  29. Theory
    • overacrching ideas supported by many facts.
    • ex. theory of evolution
  30. Deductive reasoning
    • from general to specific
    • ex. all birds have feathered wings. sparrows have wings, so its a bird.
  31. Inductive reasoning:
    • specific to general
    • ex. sparrows are birds and can fly. owls and eagles have wings. we can induce all birds can fly. (not true, pinguins)
  32. Inductive leap
    many observations to make generalization/ not true in all cases!
  33. Independent variable
    • graphed on x-axis
    • what is being tested?
    • ex. 10 lbs extra
  34. Dependent variable
    • graphed on y-axis
    • what changes as a result of the indepedent variable?
    • ex. HR + recovery time
  35. Control variables
    everything is the same between control group and experimental group except independent variable
  36. Control group
    no treatment
  37. experimental group
    with treatment
  38. control treatment
    • what you do to the control group without the indepedent variable.
    • ex. step test w/o 10 lbs extra weight.
  39. Replication
    • Each person/ subject is 1 trial
    • how many times it is repeated
    • ex. we had 10 ppl in the step test
  40. when to use line graph?
    • line graph= continous data
    • ex. time, weight, height
  41. when to use bar graph?
    separate or discontinuous groups or non-numerical categories, thus emphasizing the discrete differences between the groups
  42. what is a table?
    • a chart that is used to present results that have a few to many data points
    • useful for displaying several dependent variables
  43. what is level of treatment?
    • the value set for the independent variable
    • ex. we used 10 lbs
  44. scientific paper should be
    reproducible. someome else must have to try it and see if its right
  45. How can you remember all 6 kingdoms?
    Kings Play Chess On Feathered Grass Sun=

    Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
  46. Define species
    • a group of populations that look similar to each other and different from other populations and they interbreed and produce fertile offspring in nature
    • defining species is difficult because its a dynamin (moving) process
  47. For species that are very close to each other, ex. dogs, wolves, cayotes, where do you draw the line and call them a different species?
    when they can not breed anymore.
  48. Biological evolution?
    a change in a population overtime.
  49. Natural Selection (4):
    • population with genetic variation (heritable)
    • overproduction of offspring
    • selection against certain traits (differential survival)
    • increased frequency of favorable traits in the next generation
    • other types of selection=seuxal, genetic drift, artificial
  50. What's the main deal with evolution?
    • all life is related
    • unity+ diversity
  51. By looking at chemical behavior, we can...
    tell chemical bonds---> solubility
  52. what are living things made out of?
    • matter= anything that takes up space + has mass.
    • matter is made up of elements (92 naturally occuring)
  53. What elements are 96% of living things are made of? What about the remaining 4%?
    C, O, N, H

    the rest 4% are made up of Ca, P, K, S, Na, Cl, Mg
  54. Trace elements
    needed in small measures but w/o them you'll be ill.
  55. Micronutrients
    • we get it from food
    • plants get it from air
  56. Element:
    a substance that cannot be broken down to other substance by chemical reactions
  57. Compound:
    • a substance composed of two or more elements in a fixed ratio
    • ex. NaCl, C6H12O6, CH4
  58. What are the subatomic particles in an atom? What is the charge and mass on each?
    • protons (+) - 1 dalton
    • neutrons (0) - 1 dalton
    • electrons (-) - 0
  59. what gives an atom its personality?
    number of protons
  60. what is an electron shell?
    an electron's energy level is correlated with its average distance from the nucleus. electrons are found in diff electron shells, each with a characteristic average distance and energy level
  61. define isotope
    • element with a different number of neutrons
    • not all are radioactive
    • ex. Denterium is a hydrogen atom with 2 neutrons. it is not radioactive but it's heavy
    • ex. tritium is a hydrogen atom with 3 neutrons. it decays and it's toxic. it's found in nature.
  62. What are radioactive isotopes used for?
    • dating fossils (radioactive dating)
    • tracing atoms through metabolic processes
    • diagnosing medical disorders
  63. What is the highest/ lowest energy shell?
    • Lowest energy shell is the one nearest the nucleus.
    • the highest energy shell is the outer most shell
  64. When an electron jumps to a higher energy level, it ________ energy. When an electron jumps to a lower energy level, it ______ energy.
    absorbs, releases
  65. Octet rule
    atom needs to fill up to 8 electrons in outer most shell to feel "good"
  66. what are valence electrons?
    the electrons in the outer most shell
  67. define chemical bond
    sharing a pair of electrons
  68. What is non polar covalent bond?
    • it is an equal sharing of an electron
    • ex. non-water soluble molecules
  69. What is polar covalent bond?
    • unequal sharing of electrons
    • ex. water solubile molecules
  70. polar covalent bonds lead to _________ bonding
  71. define ionic bond. when is it strong/weak
    • electrostatic attraction between ions.
    • strong when dry. weak when wet
  72. define ion, cation, anion
    • an atom or molecule that has gained or lost electrons.
    • cation= + charged ion
    • anion= - charged ion
  73. define hydrogen bonds
    • electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen in a polar covalent bond and an O or N in a polar covalent bond
    • weak bond
  74. Vander Waals Forces (London Dispersion)
    • individual weak forces
    • occure when atoms and molecules are very close together
    • ex. gives Gecko lizards the ability to walk up wall