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The study of life
- Method of investigation
- removes emotions from ideas
- ex. grapefruit or drug to prolong life for rats
How do you define life? (7 categories)
- 1. order ex. rocks, diamonds
- 2. regulation ex. ears on rabbits
- 3. energy processing ex. celluar respiration, photosynthesis
- 4. growth and development ex. crystals grow into minerals, fire
- 5. reproduction ex. sexual, fire reproduces
- 6. response to the environment ex. fox loses white fur
- 7. evolve: change in population over time, natural selection. individuals cant evolve in bio
Different levels of complexity
atoms-->molecules--> organelles(subcellular)--> cells (basic unit of life)-->tissues (similar cells for common purpose)--> organs (collection of tissue for common purpose)--> organism (individual)--> population (all members of one species)-->communities (diff species interacting together)--> biosphere
the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. allows for why atoms work together. ex. break down car
- Convert light to energy (photosynthesis)/animals.
- nutrients get recycled this way.
- function! shape of things is important.
- Ex. birds=large surface area due to wings, hollow bones.
- neurons- high speed communication/ one long narrow strand to travel fastest.
- mitochondria-inner membrane is folded to increase surface area
All life is made up of 1 or more cells.
What do all cells have?
- cell membrane
- molecule heretity (DNA)
- ribosomes (protein synthesis)
what are the two types of cells?
prokaryotes (bacteria) and eukaryotes
- "before the nucleus"
- no nucleus
- no organelles
- small 0.5-10 micrometers (millionth of meter)
- "true nucleus"
- nucleus+membrane bound organelles
- 10-100 micrometers
- maintenance of internal conditions within a tolerable range
- ex. body temperature
- Hot--->sweat---> cool ----> ok
- Cold--->shiver (release heat)--->warm---> ok
- maintains homeostasis.
- a change in a variable triggers a response that counteracts the change
- ex. low blood sugar=hungry
- when you're hot, your metabolism goes up. sweat faster and cool down.
- dangerous (causes opposite of homeostasis)
- a change in a variable triggers response a mechanism to amplify change
- ex. sauna
- important during: child birth (uterus contracts) and sexual response
the naming and classifying of organisms (least inclusive to most inclusive)
Name the 3 domains
- Archaea bacteria
Name the 6 kingdoms and what domains they are under
- 1. Eubacteria (d: Eubacteria, type: prokaryotes)
- 2. Archeabacteria (d: Archeabacteria, prokaryotes)
- 3. Protista, Fungi, Animalia, Plantae (d. Eukarya, eukaryotes)
Domain: a group of related
Kingdom: a group of related
Phylum: a group of related
Class: a group of related
Order: a group of related
Family: a group of related
Genus: a group of related
- 1. observation/problem
- 2. hypothesis=tenative explanation or educated guess
- 3. test/ experiment to address the hypothesis
- 4. results
- 5. conclusion
Can a hypothesis be proven true?
No. A hypothesis can be falsfied, but never proven true.
What's the connection between hypothesis and theory?
it is a hypothesis that has been tested many times over and never falsfied and then it may become a theory.
- overacrching ideas supported by many facts.
- ex. theory of evolution
- from general to specific
- ex. all birds have feathered wings. sparrows have wings, so its a bird.
- specific to general
- ex. sparrows are birds and can fly. owls and eagles have wings. we can induce all birds can fly. (not true, pinguins)
many observations to make generalization/ not true in all cases!
- graphed on x-axis
- what is being tested?
- ex. 10 lbs extra
- graphed on y-axis
- what changes as a result of the indepedent variable?
- ex. HR + recovery time
everything is the same between control group and experimental group except independent variable
- what you do to the control group without the indepedent variable.
- ex. step test w/o 10 lbs extra weight.
- Each person/ subject is 1 trial
- how many times it is repeated
- ex. we had 10 ppl in the step test
when to use line graph?
- line graph= continous data
- ex. time, weight, height
when to use bar graph?
separate or discontinuous groups or non-numerical categories, thus emphasizing the discrete differences between the groups
what is a table?
- a chart that is used to present results that have a few to many data points
- useful for displaying several dependent variables
what is level of treatment?
- the value set for the independent variable
- ex. we used 10 lbs
scientific paper should be
reproducible. someome else must have to try it and see if its right
How can you remember all 6 kingdoms?
Kings Play Chess On Feathered Grass Sun=
Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
- a group of populations that look similar to each other and different from other populations and they interbreed and produce fertile offspring in nature
- defining species is difficult because its a dynamin (moving) process
For species that are very close to each other, ex. dogs, wolves, cayotes, where do you draw the line and call them a different species?
when they can not breed anymore.
a change in a population overtime.
Natural Selection (4):
- population with genetic variation (heritable)
- overproduction of offspring
- selection against certain traits (differential survival)
- increased frequency of favorable traits in the next generation
- other types of selection=seuxal, genetic drift, artificial
What's the main deal with evolution?
- all life is related
- unity+ diversity
By looking at chemical behavior, we can...
tell chemical bonds---> solubility
what are living things made out of?
- matter= anything that takes up space + has mass.
- matter is made up of elements (92 naturally occuring)
What elements are 96% of living things are made of? What about the remaining 4%?
C, O, N, H
the rest 4% are made up of Ca, P, K, S, Na, Cl, Mg
needed in small measures but w/o them you'll be ill.
- we get it from food
- plants get it from air
a substance that cannot be broken down to other substance by chemical reactions
- a substance composed of two or more elements in a fixed ratio
- ex. NaCl, C6H12O6, CH4
What are the subatomic particles in an atom? What is the charge and mass on each?
- protons (+) - 1 dalton
- neutrons (0) - 1 dalton
- electrons (-) - 0
what gives an atom its personality?
number of protons
what is an electron shell?
an electron's energy level is correlated with its average distance from the nucleus. electrons are found in diff electron shells, each with a characteristic average distance and energy level
- element with a different number of neutrons
- not all are radioactive
- ex. Denterium is a hydrogen atom with 2 neutrons. it is not radioactive but it's heavy
- ex. tritium is a hydrogen atom with 3 neutrons. it decays and it's toxic. it's found in nature.
What are radioactive isotopes used for?
- dating fossils (radioactive dating)
- tracing atoms through metabolic processes
- diagnosing medical disorders
What is the highest/ lowest energy shell?
- Lowest energy shell is the one nearest the nucleus.
- the highest energy shell is the outer most shell
When an electron jumps to a higher energy level, it ________ energy. When an electron jumps to a lower energy level, it ______ energy.
atom needs to fill up to 8 electrons in outer most shell to feel "good"
what are valence electrons?
the electrons in the outer most shell
define chemical bond
sharing a pair of electrons
What is non polar covalent bond?
- it is an equal sharing of an electron
- ex. non-water soluble molecules
What is polar covalent bond?
- unequal sharing of electrons
- ex. water solubile molecules
polar covalent bonds lead to _________ bonding
define ionic bond. when is it strong/weak
- electrostatic attraction between ions.
- strong when dry. weak when wet
define ion, cation, anion
- an atom or molecule that has gained or lost electrons.
- cation= + charged ion
- anion= - charged ion
define hydrogen bonds
- electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen in a polar covalent bond and an O or N in a polar covalent bond
- weak bond
Vander Waals Forces (London Dispersion)
- individual weak forces
- occure when atoms and molecules are very close together
- ex. gives Gecko lizards the ability to walk up wall