DD307SP Bk1 Ch4 Emotions

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DD307SP Bk1 Ch4 Emotions
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DD307SP Bk1 Ch4 Emotions
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  1. Emotions
    • Background
    • What makes emotions emotional
    • Appraisal theory
    • Emotions & social id
    • Basic emotions
    • Emotion discourse
    • Pre linguistic emotions
    • Emotions as relation alignment
    • Conclusion
  2. Background
    • Aims
    • Understanding range of approaches to emotions
    • Familiarity with cognitive social & discursive psych perspectives on emotions
    • Awareness of current debates on role of social & cultural factors & meaning of facial expressions
    • Understanding key ideas theoretical debates & epistology of SP of emotions
    • ----------------------
    • Introduction
    • LC:-theories of emotions have shifted from individualistic and biological accounts to those that have paved the way to explaining emotions within social and cultural contexts
    • Emotions are:
    • · subjective,
    • · socio-cultural influences,
    • · distinctive social psychological aspect,
    • · involved in interpersonal, relational, institutional and cultural contexts;
    • · interpreted according societal rules,
    • · yet we think they are personal & private
    • --------------------
    • History of theories of emotions
    • Development of experimental approach:
    • need for objective measures;
    • focus on facial & physiological responses
    • Components or aspect of emotions and how they link:
    • · Cognitive,
    • · bodily responses,
    • · facial expressions,
    • · innate emotions,
    • · combinations of emotions and with cognition
  3. What makes emotions emotional? (Keywords)
    • Feedback Theory
    • Cannon's theory
    • Schachter's theory
    • Summary
  4. What makes emotions emotional?
    • James' Feedback Theory
    • James 1884: 1st psychological theory on emotions
    • Emotions result from bodily responses to events, e.g. heart, perspiration etc.
    • Contrasts with our usual assumption that bodily changes are a consequences to our emotions,
    • However James: body reacts automatically before emotion occurs, i.e. emotion is our perception of body reactions (chicken & egg? SKM)
    • Each emotion caused by unique pattern of bodily change
    • Problem:
    • · doesn't account for how perception of emotional event leads to bodily change;
    • · how does emotion depend on body sensation rather than initial interpretation of an event ;
    • · his conclusion based on introspection
    • --------------------
    • Cannon's theory
    • Due to pressure for scientific finding, measured physiological patterns
    • Findings:
    • · contrasting emotions had similar physiological responses; i.e. common pattern of activation in autonomic nervous system associated with wide range of emotions;
    • Conclusion:
    • · purpose to release metabolic energy to cope with emergency;
    • Implication:
    • · therefore experience of emotions in brain not body
    • Challenge:-
    • · Neither James nor Cannon:-SP account of emotions, events triggering emotions may be social,but emotional process mainly physiological.
    • · Both look inwards rather than outwards for direct cause of emotions
  5. What makes emotions emotional? (Cont)
    • Schachter's theory
    • Experiment:-expecting electric shocks:-participants preferred to wait with another participants awaiting same fate
    • Conclusion:-make sense of emotions by comparing with others.
    • James correct in bodily perceptions & Cannon in similarity of bodily changes i.e. autonomous system tell us emotion is occurring but not what it is;
    • therefore we infer emotional quality from current situation and other's reaction to it
    • Emotions depend on:
    • 1. Autonomic activation in body (physiological) determines intensity of emotion
    • 2. Cognition about situation - determines quality of experienced emotion
    • Vitamins Experiment:Schachte & singer 1962
    • Induced autonomic activation; participants told new vitamin compound intended to asses effect on perception; injected adrenalin or placebo; some adrenalin cases correctly warned, could interpret symptoms were due to injection, others misinformed, no explanation for symptoms
    • Participants left with stooge, either happy or angry, both filled out questionnaire on personal and insulting questions.
    • Prediction:-emotion should only be visible if experiencing autonomic activation and believed these were cause by emotional situation i.e. the stooges behaviour
    • Findings:-less clear-cut; unexpected arousal-did not consistently report more emotion than placebo, also in anger condition reported feeling mildly happy.
    • Issues:-ethical, drugs, misleading; artificial situation to test contextualised phenomenon in socio-cultural settings; self-report on emotion e.g. anger not accurate
    • Although inconclusive, idea that emotional reactions are shaped by interpretation of situations had lasting impact.
    • Subsequent thinking:-physiological and cognitive responses emerge in parallel, not independent variables that can be manipulated in experiments
    • LC:-Schachter's two-factor theory proposes that we infer emotion from the current situation and from how other people are reacting to it. His experiments paved the way for a more social account of emotional experience located in cultural context
  6. Summary of What makes emotions emotional
    • James:-bodily changes
    • Cannon:-cognitive
    • Schachter:-combining info from body & brain perceptions of what is happening
    • Each partially true, however finding essence of emotion in subjective experience maybe over-restrictive
  7. Appraisal theory (Keywords)
    • Magda Arnold
    • Appraisals
    • Summary
  8. Appraisal Theory
    • Magda Arnold 1960
    • Coined the term appraisal theory
    • Asked what makes perception of event an emotional or non-emotional perception
    • Answer:-
    • need to perceive events as relevant to wants or don't wants.
    • Appraising as desirable=attraction to it; i.e. based on subjective feelings,;
    • also body needs to be prepared to react (autonomic activity) may be associated with facial expressions
    • Appraisals:-determines the difference between emotion and non emotional as well as between various emotions
    • Smith & Lazarus 1993:-appraisal theory
    • The experience of emotion is dependent on appraising what is happening is affecting current goals (motivational relevance).
    • Whether the emotion is pleasant or unpleasant depends on appraisal of "motivational congruence" (does it help or hinder goals)
    • Specific nature of emotion depends on"secondary" appraisals which assesses how the event is to be explained (accountability) and what options are available for dealing with it (coping potential) e.g. being insulted-who is accountable, self or other-guilt or anger
    • How we perceive (consciously or otherwise) the source of emotion affects the emotion felt
    • In practice appraisal and emotion are tightly intertwined, difficult to separate them
    • Examples:
    • Motivational relevance = emotion
    • + motivational incongruence = unpleasant emotion
    • + self accountability = guilt
    • + other-accountability =Anger
    • + motivational congruence = Pleasant emotion
    • + self accountability = Pride
    • + other accountability = Gratitude
    • LC:-Emotion is explained in terms of perception and interpretation of external sitations. We are taught by others how to appraise things. The social world gives temporal and spatial structure to events we respond to in real time.
  9. Summary of Appraisal Theory
    • Theory explains emotion in terms of perception and interpretation of external situation rather than internal
    • Main contribution:-relation of emotion names to emotional meaning
    • However:-doubtful how consistently meanings and emotions relate and do they generally capture causal processes
  10. Emotions & social identity (Keywords)
    • Group identity
    • Emotional labour
    • Summary
  11. Emotions & social identity
    • Group identity & appraisal theory
    • Appraisals theory is an example of social-cognitive approach;
    • argues animation cannot occur unless perceived as personally significant;
    • · however:-we feel emotions about things that happened to others (happy sad etc);
    • · answer:-other people matter to us and what happens to them effect as personally
    • 1990s:-investigations into emotions induced by events relevent to groups
    • Doosje et al 1998:-people can feel guilty about acts they played no role in e.g. Nazi atrocities and Germans
    • Smith 1993:-social identification makes group relevant events self relevant;
    • · however:-high identification may lead rejection of ambiguous evidence of wrongdoing by group because accepting in group responsibility would be threatening to valued social identity e.g. strong National identification in Dutch = lower collective guilt about colonisation history of Nederlands than Dutch with low national identity, but reported high levels of collective guilt when given unambiguous evidence of historic exploitation
    • LC:-emotions are affected by groups and organisations to which we belong
    • ------------------------------
    • Emotional labour
    • Experiments:-manipulate participants appraisals to produce specific emotional effects;
    • Similar manipulation also found in the listed organisational situations where people attempt to influence appraisals to encourage desired emotional response
    • Social structures may constrain appraisals and emotions but do not necessarily remove agency
    • E.g.:-emotional labour:-people actively working on own or others' emotions to meet employers needs
    • Hochchild 1983:-flight attendants; often trained so well that pleasant reactions were unforced and sincere even to difficult passengers
  12. Summary of Emotions and Social Identity
    • Emotions are affected by groups we belong to;
    • · the reason:-personal appraisal is shaped by how others view what is happening, and how others have taught us to appraise things
    • However social world can also influence our emotions more directly by giving structure to events we respond to in real-time
  13. Basic emotions (Keywords)
    • Facial expressions
    • Emotional categories
    • Summary
  14. Basic Emotions
    • Facial expressions
    • +Ekman et al 1969:-different societies matched photographs of facial expressions to corresponding basic categories of emotions;
    • replicated in New Guinea and Borneo with people with limited contact with Westerners;
    • conclusion:-confirms universal connection between basic emotion and facial expressions
    • +However:-Russell 1994:-smiles consistently associated with happiness, but other expressions much lower;
    • Russell's answer:-faces tell us something about another's emotional experience but not directly what emotion;
    • acknowledges some aspects of facial expression are universal but specific facial patterns do not reveal basic emotion categories
    • +Some theorists propose that the function of facial movements is to express emotion
    • e.g. Fridlund 1994:-emotional facial movements evolved to transmit information about social motives or behavioural intentions e.g. anger face = non-verbal threat may be associated with real anger but not always therefore:-facial expressions may be correlated with emotional categories without any direct connection with emotions themselves
    • LC:-Spontaneous expression of biologically-shaped emotions are regulated by societal expectations and norms
    • ---------------------
  15. Basic Emotions (Cont)
    • Nature of emotion categories
    • Limitations of cross-cultural research on facial expressions:-
    • o participants did not match faces to emotions but to words describing emotions;
    • o some English emotional words could not be directly translated into other languages
    • Russell 2003:-emotional concepts are specific cultural meanings imposed on experience rather than direct reflection of psychological reality;
    • o possible that conventional perception of emotions lie mainly in the eye of the beholder
    • Contrary to appraisals theory that emotions are activated by appraisals, Russell proposes that we interpret events to the extent that features match what we believe characterises these emotions;
    • (Cathy's rewording:- How we interpret our feelings depends on our understanding of what the categories of emotions are).
    • o therefore like Schachter, Russell believes emotions are interpretations of internal experience shaped by perceptions about what is going on outside
    • E.g. Schadenfreude:-malicious pleasure about someone else's misfortune; words borrowed from German to describe this emotion; does having a name mean this is a real emotion?
    • Russell does not confuse the application of emotional concepts with emotions themselves in view of cross-cultural differences in describing and conceptualising emotions.
  16. Summary of Basic Emotions
    • Basic emotions relates to the concept of universal emotions of the evolutionary origins;
    • however linguistic categories are not perfectly correlated and some facial expressions do not have precise translation in all human languages.
    • Russell concludes that basic emotions cohere in perception more than in reality;
    • it is possible that we can never access emotions themselves but only the ways in presenting and representing
  17. Emotional Discourse
    • Many psychological experiments are limited due to the use of self-reports to index emotions e.g. Doosje ea 1998 study on collective guilt; this tells us more about people's interpretation of emotional experience rather than the emotions themselves
    • Russell 2003:-main problem with self-reports is that they use imperfect concepts; valid scientific concept according to Russell must match up with intrinsic features of the phenomenon and emotional concepts fail to do that;
    • however, people's representations are usually representations made to certain other people for certain purposes.
    • ----------------------
    • In contrast Edwards 1999:-discursive approach makes no assumption about what emotions are but focuses on how emotion talk functions in everyday interactions between people; i.e. emotion is treated not as a psychological phenomenon but as a conceptual resource deployed in conversations
    • ---------------------
    • Russell:-problem with cognitive representation of emotion is fuzziness of categories (e.g. no defining feature of emotion "anger");
    • Edwards:-discursive emotion formulations are flexible rather than fuzzy and can be used for a variety of rhetorical purposes
    • (Cathy's note:- we can't tell what the independent emotional reality is, but only people's perceptions of the situations and emotions).
    • Difference in focus between discursive and social cognitive approach to emotions is:-
    • +Discursive psychologists investigate how emotion talk is deployed in conversation rather than subjective feelings, physiological responses or facial expressions that are supposedly indexed by the associated concepts.
    • +Discursive psychologists make no attempt to look at the comprehensive causal account of emotional phenomena themselves
    • Psychological processes do not necessarily have labels (e.g. emotions) attached and emotion words are generated for a specific purpose (e.g. research or expressing something). We can still study the cause and effects of psychological processes that are loosely connecte to lay-people's emotional terms and discursive psychology offers one way of doing this.
  18. Pre linguistic emotions
    • Emotions in preverbal infants
    • Reddy 2000:-videotaped five infants between two and three months interacting with adult or own reflections in mirror;
    • observation:-infants withdrew gaze while beginning to smile in response to another person's sustained visual attention;
    • interpretations possible e.g. shyness, or indication that contact not welcome;
    • no definite answer possible however, it indicates the role of emotion in regulating relations with others
  19. Emotions as relation alignment
    • Discursive approach:- emotion-related talk can serve various functions; raises possibility that no simple psychological object called emotion exists
    • One answer:-some purposes in formulating something in emotional terms could be achieved nonverbally e.g. smiling to indicate happiness;
    • can be used as a form of non-verbal conversation analysis;
    • direct effect during dialogue that are read by participants in conversations in emotional terms
    • I.e. emotions discourse is an elaboration of the interplay of non-verbal communications that is preceeded developmentally by a more basic "conversation of gestures" (e.g. Mead 1934)
    • Discourse operates partly because relations between people take form prior to the onset of language
    • It is possible that people learn to use emotions to achieve social effects and communicate appraisal to others
  20. Conclusion
    • Most psychologists agree that subjective experiences, cognitive appraisals, autonomic changes and facial expressions relate to emotions in someway
    • --------------------------
    • Beyond that agreement is hard to find; arguments about whether connections between processes are
    • evolutionary or socially learned;
    • interconnected in reality or perception;
    • specifying the nature of emotion problematic if we accept that emotion concepts are part of a flexible interpretative repertoire in conversations
    • ----------------
    • Social psychology could make a contribution in understanding emotions by exploring social functions and effects of processes often coordinated with emotion discourse and non-verbal communication
    • -----------------
    • Future research may address the nature of the integrated verbal and non-verbal presentations made in connection with emotion discourse
  21. Power
    • Power of socially shared cultural interpretations in ahaping emotions
    • Power of emotional discourse to argue, apportion blame and make others feel responsible
  22. Situated Knowledge
    • Emotional experience is not just embodied, it is always talked about and though about within social groups and cultural contexts. Emotions are socially shared interpretations that originate in different cultures at different times in history
    • Psychological theories, common sense understandings of emotions and therefore our knowledge of emotions are all crucially affected by, and constructed by, historical and social contexts where emotions serve as social functions.
  23. Individual/Social Dualism
    • Theories of emotions can historically be placed on a continuum according to their emphasis on individual or social factors.
    • Mainstream cognitive theories have generally emphasised individual factors where, at most, social factors are seen as merely a backdrop.
    • Discursive psychologist Edwards arues that emotions are constructed in social processes - they are used in everyday talk for conversational purposes - social and cultural contexts are fundamental to the ways in which individuals think and talk about emotional experience - the individual and social are thus inseparable
  24. Agency-Structure Dualism
    ?Nothing in Linda Corlett's notes on this specifically

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