Psy Chapter 1

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Psy Chapter 1
2011-08-28 17:34:05
Caswell Psy chapter

Caswell Psy 3213 Chapter 1
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  1. What is Science?
    Science is a systematic formof inquiry, based onobservation, prediction,reasoning, and testing
  2. Science is not
    • a subject matter.
    • Science is a method!
  3. Doing Science
    Use the scientific method to…
    • Test our hypotheses
    • -can be refuted or accepted
    • Scientific knowledge is refined/altered
    • Science should be self-correcting
  4. Where does knowledge comefrom?
    • Intuition
    • -Thoughts and preferences that come to mindquickly and without much reflection
    • -Based on common sense or experience
    • -Going with your gut feeling
    • Authority
    • -Teachers, religious leaders, politicians,celebrities, etc.E.g. – “The sun revolves around the earth.”

    • Scientists reject intuitionand blind acceptance ofauthority
    • Empiricism - knowledgethrough direct observationand experience
    • Reason - use logic todeduce what is true
    • - Relies on premises to beaccurate
  5. Goodstein’s (2000) Evolved Theory of Science
    Defines characteristics of scientific inquiry
    • 1) Scientists make observations that areaccurately reported- Allow for scrutiny/replication
    • 2) Search for observations that will verifytheir theories
    • - Conduct research to build
    • 3) Open system for exchange of ideas
    • - Different points of view must befunded/protected
    • 4) Peer review—before findings are published,they must be evaluated by other experts
    • - Prevent flawed research from being published
  6. Psychology is a ??
    • The science of human behavior and mental processes
    • Science is not a subject matter
    • Science is a method, a way ofanswering questions
  7. Scientific Method
    • techniques for acquiring newknowledge
    • - Must beobservable/measurable(empirical)
    • - Must use logical reasoning
    • - Claims must be justified
    • -Scientific method embodiesrules for collecting and evaluating data
  8. The Scientific Method -Step 1,2,3
    • 1) Ask a question / Define a problem
    • - May require skepticism
    • - Often based on observation
    • Start with empirical questions
    • - those that can be answered with the scientific method
    • 2) Do background research- May require skepticism
    • 3) Construct a hypothesis- Based on observation or past research findings- Involves a specific relationship
  9. The Scientific Method - Steps 4-7
    • 4) Collect data􀂄 Measuring the variables of interest􀂄 Study design differs depending on what you arestudying
    • 5) Analyze results􀂄 Use statistics to test hypotheses and makeconclusion
    • 6) Evaluate hypothesis􀂄 Supported? Not supported?
    • 7) Report results􀂄 Peer review
  10. What is Critical Thinking?
    Eight guidelines:
    • Ask questions; be willing to wonder
    • - Be curious
    • Define the problem
    • - Be clear on all of the terms
    • Examine the evidence.- Be skeptical of “self-reports.”
    • Analyze assumptions and biases.- Are there unsupported assumptions or biases?
    • Avoid emotional reasoning.- “I just know it. I feel it. It’s instinct.
    • ”Don’t over generalize or use “either/orthinking”.- All Muslims are terrorists. All or nothing. Black or white.
    • Tolerate uncertainty.- Don’t make a decision just for the sake ofmaking a decision.
  11. Limitations to Watch Out For
    • Biases:
    • Belief perseverance- Tendency to hold doggedly onto a belief, even inthe face of evidence that would convince mostpeople that the belief is false
    • Confirmation bias- Tendency to seek out information that supportsone’s beliefs while ignoring contrary information
    • Availability heuristic- Experiencing an unusual or very memorable event and then overestimating how often it occurs
  12. Pseudoscience
    • Appears to look like science, but…
    • -Rely on non-scientific authorities/anecdotes tosupport theories
    • Hypotheses aren’t really testable
    • Methodology is not reported or is not scientific
    • Ignore conflicting claims/evidence
    • Claims never revised
  13. Goals of (Psychological) Science
    • • Description– Observational research
    • • Prediction– Correlational research
    • • Explanation– Experimental research
    • • Change/Application– Real world uses
  14. Basic Research
    • Basic research tries to answer basicquestions about the nature of behavior - Basic behavioral processes
    • Do shared negative beliefs facilitatebonding more than shared positivebeliefs?
    • Does testosterone predict statusseekingbehavior?
  15. Applied Research
    • Applied research addresses issues inwhich there are practical problems and potential solutions
    • Do dopamine levels shape the severityof schizophrenia?
    • Can measurable personality traitspredict workplace behavior?
  16. Psychology is a science
    If you want to use psychology in yourwork, you must be use the research appropriately
  17. Learn to be a better consumer ofresearch
    • Learn how to ask critical questions
    • Learn how to distinguish between goodscience and bad science