Entomology

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ditzybutterfly
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98765
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Entomology
Updated:
2011-09-09 16:03:03
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insects
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test 1
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  1. WHY ARE THERE MANY INSECTS?
    • ~Small size
    • ~sensory & neuro-motor sophistication
    • ~adaptability; response to environmental change; short generations
    • ~wings & flight
    • ~complete metamorphosis
    • ~co-evolution w/plants
  2. IDENTIFY WHICH INSECT GROUPS ARE THE MOST SUCCESSFUL IN TERMS OF NUMBERS?
    • ~coleoptera 38%
    • ~lepidoptera 16%
    • ~hymenoptera 13%
    • ~diptera 12%
  3. WHY DO WE STUDY INSECTS?
    • ~genetics & evolution
    • ~benefits to humans
    • ~ecosystem fxns
    • ~medical/livestock reasons
  4. KNOW THE VARIOUS CLASSIFICATION CATEGORIES & BEING ABLE TO IDENTIFY THEM BY THEIR SUFFIX
    • ~kingdom
    • ~phylum
    • ~order
    • ~superfamily = oidea
    • ~family = idae
    • ~subfamily = inae
    • ~genus
    • ~species
    • ~
  5. CLASSIFICATION
    ~the process of establishing, defining & ranking taxa into a hierarchical series of groups
  6. ENTOMOLOGY
    ~the study of insects
  7. PHYLUM
    • ~inclusive classification category
    • ~e.g. arthropoda
  8. CLASS
    • ~classification category below phylum
    • ~e.g. Insecta
  9. ORDER
    • ~classification category
    • ~e.g. coleoptera
  10. FAMILY
    • ~classification that ends in -idae
    • ~e.g. staphylinidae
  11. SUBFAMILY
    • ~classification that ends in -inae
    • ~e.g. staphylininae
  12. GENUS
    • ~classification category
    • ~an assembledge fo one or more species united by one or more derived features and therefore believed to be of a single evolutionary origin
  13. SPECIES
    ~a group of all individuals that an interbreed, mating w/i the group & producing fertile offspring, usually similar in appearance & behavior
  14. HOLOMETABOLOUS
    ~development in which the body form abruptly changes at teh pupal malt; complete metamorposis
  15. HEMIMETABOLOUS
    ~development in which the body form gradually changes at each molt, w/wing buds growing larger at each molt; incomplete metamorphosis
  16. DESCRIBE THE INSECT CUTICLE
    • ~epicuticle
    • ~exocuticle
    • ~endocuticle
    • ~procuticle
    • ~no cells; just hardened support
  17. EPICUTICLE
    • ~very top layer of cuticle
    • ~waxy, very thin
  18. EXOCUTICLE
    ~immediately below epicuticle
  19. ENDOCUTICLE
    ~immediatly below exocuticle
  20. PROCUTICLE
    ~the epicuticle, exocuticle, & endocuticle collectively
  21. EXPLAIN HOW COLOR PRODUCTION OCCURS & HOW IS COLOR USED BY INSECTS
    • ~structural (physical)
    • *interference
    • *diffraction
    • *scattering
    • ~pigments
    • ~used for sex identification, defense, mimicry, camouflage, protective, sight
  22. EXPLAIN THE BASIC INSECT BODY PLAN & SEGMENTATION
    • ~metameric segmentation
    • ~complete body segmentation
    • ~tagmosis
    • ~prosoma/opisthosoma
    • ~head/thorax/abdomen
    • ~sclerites
  23. INTERFERENCE COLORING
    • ~structural coloring
    • ~iridescence & ultraviolet
    • ~deflection of light from varyingly spaced reflective layers of microfibrils
  24. DIFFRACTION COLORING
    • ~structural coloring
    • ~gratings create a distinctive "spectral" iridescence, w/repeating, ordered spectra that will shift position on the body w/respect to the angle of illumination
  25. SCATTERING COLORING
    • ~structural coloring
    • ~produced by irregularities on the surface relative to the wavelength of light
  26. PIGMENT COLORING
    • ~produced by:
    • *own metabolism
    • *eating plants
    • *microbes
  27. METAMERIC SEGMENTATION
    ~divided equally & separate from each segment
  28. TAGMATA
    ~fused segments specialized for different fxns
  29. SCLERITES
    • ~a plate on the body wall surrounded by membrane or sutures
    • ~tergites
    • ~pleurites
    • ~sternites
  30. TERGITES
    ~the diminutive or tergum; a subdivision of the tergum
  31. PLEURITES
    ~the lateral region of the body, bearing the limb bases
  32. STERNITES
    ~the diminutive of sternum; a subdivision of a sternum
  33. RECOGNIZE & DESCRIBE INSECT MOUTHPARTS & DISCUSS THE DIFFERENT FORMS OF MANDIBLES, AS WELL AS THE MAJOR MODIFICATIONS B/W DIFFERENT INSECT GROUPS
    • ~entagnatha
    • ~ectognatha
  34. ENTOGNATHA
    • ~noninsect
    • ~mouthparts in an internal pouch; no visible mouthparts
  35. ECTOGNATHA
    • ~INSECTA
    • ~mouthparts are visible
  36. DISTINGUISH B/W PRO-,OPISTHO-, & HYPOGNATHUS HEADS
    • ~prognathus ->head horizontal & mouth anteriorly
    • ~opisthognathus -> head deflexed such that the mouthparts are directed posteriorly
    • ~hypognathus -> head directed vertically & mouth ventrally
  37. TAGMOSIS
    ~the organization of the body into major units
  38. LABRUM
    ~the "upper lip" forming the roof of the preoral cavity & mouth
  39. MANDIBLES
    ~the jaws, either jawlike in shape in biting & chewing insects or modified as narrow stylets inpiercing & sucking insects; the 1st pair of jaws; derived from the 4th head segment
  40. MAXILLAE
    ~the 2nd pair of jaws; jawlike in chewing insects, variously modified in others, derived from the 5th head segment
  41. LABIUM
    ~the "lower lip", forming the floor of the mouth, often w/a pair of palps & 2 pairs of median lobes, derived from teh 6th head segment
  42. EXOSKELETON
    ~the external, hardened, cuticular skeleteon to which muscles are attached internally
  43. EPICUTICLE
    ~the inextensible & unsupportive outermost layer of cuticle
  44. EXOCUTICLE
    ~the rigid, sclerotized outer layer of the procuticle
  45. PROCUTICLE
    ~the thicker layer of cuticle, which in sclerotized cuticle comprises an outer exocuticle and inner endocuticle lying beneath the thinner epicuticle
  46. INTEGUMENT
    ~the epidermis plus cuticle; the outer covering of the living tissues of an insect
  47. EPIDERMIS
    ~the unicellular layer of extodermally derived integument that secretes the cuticle
  48. ENDOCUTICLE
    ~the flexible, unsclerotized inner layer of the procuticle
  49. CEMENT LAYER
    ~the outermost layer of the cuticle, often absent
  50. CHITIN
    ~the major component of arthropod cuticle, a polysaccaride composed of linked units of N-acytl-D-glucosamine
  51. ARTHRODIAL MEMBRANE
    ~soft, stretchable, cuticle, e.g. b/w segments
  52. SETAE
    ~a cuticular extension, a trichoid sensillum; hair
  53. SPINE
    ~a multicellular unjointed cuticular extension often thorn-like
  54. ACANTHAE
    ~fine, unicellular, cuticular externsions
  55. MICROTRICHIA
    ~a subcellular cuticular extension, usually several to very many per cell
  56. TERGUM
    ~the dorsal surface of a segment
  57. STERNUM
    ~the ventral surface of a segment
  58. PLEURITES
    ~the lateral region of the body, bearing the limb bases
  59. CLYPEUS
    ~the part of the insect head to which the mabrum is attached anteriorly; it lies below the frons, w/which it may be fused in a frontaclypeus or separated by a suture
  60. GENA
    ~literally, a cheek; on each side of the head, the party lying beneath the cpd eye
  61. OCELLUS
    ~the "simple" eye (fig 4.10b) of adult & nymphal insects, typically 3 in a triangle on the vertex, w/one median & 2 lateral ocelli
  62. FRONS
    ~the single medio-anterior sclerite of teh insect hed, usually lying b/w the epicranium & the clypeus
  63. OCCIPUT
    ~the dorsal part of the posterior cranium
  64. POSTOCCIPITAL SUTURES
    ~a groove on the head that indicates the original head segmentation, separating the postocciput from the remainder of the head
  65. POSTOCCIPUT
    `the posterior rim of the head behind the postoccipital suture
  66. POSTGENA
    the lateral part of the occipital arch posterior to the postoccipital suture
  67. VERTEX
    ~the top of the head, posterior to the frons
  68. TENTORIUM
    ~The endoskeletal cuticular invaginations of the head, including anterior and posterior tentorial arms
  69. APODEMES
    ~an ingrowth of the exoskeleton tendon-like, to which muscles are attached
  70. RESILIN
    ~a rubber-like or elastic protein in some insect cuticles
  71. NON-INSECT HEXAPODS
    • ~protura
    • ~diplura
    • ~collembola
  72. PROTURA
    *blind

    *very primitive looking

    *found mostly in caves or leaf litter

    *extremely rare

    *automatic A in lab if found
  73. DIPLURA
    ~"double-tail"

    *rare

    *simi-blind

    *found in leaf litter

    *worth a lot of points in lab
  74. COLLEMBOLA
    *ferculum (use to jump off substrate)
  75. THE EARLIEST INSECTS
    • ~archaeognatha
    • (microcoryphia)
    • ~zygentoma
    • (thysanura)
    • ~*both
    • grps have 3 tails

    • *archaeognatha
    • have huge eyes (differentiator)
  76. ARCHAEOGNATHA
    ~Bristetails

    ~not typically found near homes

    ~near base of trees
  77. ZYGENTOMA
    ~silverfish

    ~on walls or floor
  78. PALAEOPTERA
    • ~wings always extended out or over body, no way
    • of folding wings
    • ephemeroptera
    • (mayflies)
    • odonata
    • (dragonflies)
  79. EPHEMEROPTERA
    ~PALAEOPTERA

    ~Mayflies

    ~live multiple months as immature

    ~a day maybe 2 as adult and die

    ~optera means wings

    ~ephemer means ???

    ~only insect where last larvae stage has wings
  80. ODONATA
    ~PALAEOPTERA

    ~dragonflies

    ~extremely common in UTC parking lot

    ~extremely hard to catch -fastest insects out there

    ~need net
  81. POLYNEOPTERA
    • ~mantodea
    • ~blattodea
    • ~plecoptera
    • ~Emibioptera
    • ~Phasmatodea
    • ~dermaptera
    • ~zoraptera
    • ~orthoptera
    • ~grylloblattodea
    • ~mantophasmatodea
  82. MANTODEA
    • ~polyneoptera
    • ~praying mantas
  83. BLATTODEA
    • ~polyneoptera
    • ~cockroaches & isoptera (termites)
    • ~
  84. PLECOPTERA
    • ~polyneoptera
    • ~stone flies
    • ~*water

    *attracted to lights
  85. EMIBIOPTERA
    • ~polyneoptera
    • ~web spinners
    • ~*can produce silk from glands of front legs

    *rare around here
  86. PHASMATODEA
    • ~polyneoptera
    • ~walking sticks
    • ~*mimick branches

    *also found on garage doors
  87. DERMAPTERA
    ~polyneoptera

    ~(earwigs)

    *basements

    *under rocks
  88. ZORAPTERA
    ~polyneoptera

    ~ (angel insects)

    *rare

    *live in rotten wood

    *1 species in united states out of 30ish world wide
  89. ORTHOPTERA
    • ~polyneoptera
    • ~*grasshoppers

    *crickets
  90. GRYLLOBLATTODEA
    • ~polyneoptera
    • ~(ice crawler)

    *like extremely cold enviros

    *only found at canadian border
  91. MANTOPHASMATODEA
    ~polyneoptera

    ~(gladiator insects)

    *newest order discovered in 2001

    *strictly in south africa
  92. PARANEOPTERA
    • ~psocodea (psocoptera/phthiraptera)
    • ~thysanoptera
    • ~hemiptera
  93. PSOCODEA
    ~paraneoptera

    ~*known as book lice

    ~shape of hear is very bulbous

    ~extremely common on top of flowers



    *biting lice

    ~mammal lice
  94. THYSANOPTERA
    • ~paraneoptera
    • ~thrips
    • *extremely small
    • *don't bite humans
    • *like flowers
  95. HEMIPTERA
    • ~paraneoptera
    • ~true bugs
  96. HOLOMETABOLA
    • ~coleoptera
    • ~megaloptera
    • ~neuroptera
    • ~raphidioptera
    • ~strepsiptera
    • ~siphonaptera
    • ~mecoptera
    • ~diptera
    • ~hymenoptera
    • ~trichoptera
    • ~lepidoptera
  97. COLEOPTERA
    • ~holometabola
    • ~beetles
  98. MEGALOPTERA
    • ~holometabola
    • ~(alderflies/dobsonflies/etc)

    *huge insects

    *near smokies towards light

    *mandable are soft
  99. NEUROPTERA
    • ~holometabola
    • ~ (lacewings, antlion)
  100. RAPHIDIOPTERA
    • ~holometabola
    • ~ (snakeflies)

    *western north america
  101. STREPSIPTERA
    • ~holometabola
    • ~(twisted
    • winged parasite)

    *only found near light

    *females only found inside another insect

    (cricket/fly/etc)

    *male knows where female is/ female makes a

    hole and they mate while host is still alive
  102. SIPHENAPTERA
    • ~holometabola
    • ~(fleas)

    *flattened latterally (defense mechanism)
  103. MECOPTERA
    ~holometabola

    ~(scorpion flies)

    *do not sting though

    *near trees/upside down under leaves
  104. DIPTERA
    • ~holometabola
    • ~flies
  105. HYMENOPTERA
    • ~holometabola
    • ~bees/wasps/ants
  106. TRICHOPTERA
    • ~holometabola
    • ~caddis flies
  107. LEPIDOPTERA
    • ~holometabola
    • ~butterflies/moths
  108. DESCRIBE THE DIFFERENT KIND OF MOUTHPARTS & THEIR MODIFICATIONS IN DIFFERENT INSECT GROUPS
    • ~chewing/biting type (most beetles)
    • ~suctorial type (butterflies
    • *mandible is lost
    • *maxillae & labium are reduced
    • *probiscis formed from galea
    • ~chewing/lapping type
    • *combo of maxillae & labium
    • ~suctorial/piercing (flies)
    • *probiscus formed of labrum, hypopharynx & labium
    • ~suctorial/piercing (true bugs)
    • *"beak" formed by the mandibular stylets & maxillary stylets & encases by the labium
    • ~filter feeding type (aquatic larvae)
  109. DESCRIBE THE BASIC STRUCTURE OF ANTENNAE
    • ~3 segments
    • ~scape-attached to head
    • ~pedicel contains johnson's organ
    • ~flegellum-antennae -3rd segment & beyond
  110. KNOW HOW MANY SEGMENTS THERE ARE IN THE HEAD, THORAX, & ABDOMEN
    • ~6
    • ~3
    • ~11
  111. DESCRIBE THE BASIC LEG SEGMENTS & DISCUSS THE MODIFICATIONS OF THE FORELEG
    • ~coxa
    • ~trochanter
    • ~femur
    • ~tibia
    • ~tarsus
    • ~pretarsal claws
    • ~modified for:
    • *walking/running
    • *jumping
    • *swimming
    • *digging
    • *prey capture
  112. IDENTIFY THE MAJOR WING VEINS & DISCUSS THE MODIFICATIONS OF THE FOREWING
    • ~coastal, radial, medial, cubital, & anal
    • ~tegmina - leathery, thickened forewings
    • ~elytra - protective wing cases
    • ~hemelytra - forewings w/basal part thickened & apical part membranous
    • ~halteres -forewings are modified as stabilizes
  113. MANDIBULATE
    • ~contains mandibles
    • ~chewing/biting type of insect
  114. HAUSTELLATE
    • ~sucking; as of mouthparts
    • ~butterflies -mandibles lost, maxillae & labium reduced
  115. LAPPING
    • ~combo of maxillae & labium
    • ~mandibles more for building
  116. MANDIBLE
    ~the jaws, either jaw-like in shape in biting & chewing or modified as narrow stylets in piercing & sucking insects, 1st pair of jaws
  117. MAXILLA
    • ~2nd pair of jaws
    • ~jaw-like in mandibulates, variously modified in others
  118. LABIUM
    ~the "lower lip" forming the floor of the mouth, often w/a a pair of palps & 2 pairs of median lobes
  119. LABRUM
    ~the "upper lip", forming the roof of the preoral cavity & mouth
  120. HYPOPHARYNX
    a median lobe of preoral cavity of the mouthparts
  121. GALEA
    ~The lateral lobe of the maxillary stipes
  122. CARDO
    ~the proximal part of the maxillary base
  123. STIPES
    ~the distal part of the maxilla; bearing a galea; a lacinia, & a maxillary palp
  124. LACINIA
    ~the mesal lobe of the maxillary stipes
  125. CLYPEUS
    ~the part of the insect head to which the labrum is attached anteriorly, it lies below the frons, w/which it may be fused in a frontoclypeus or separated by a suture
  126. CIBARIUM
    ~the dorsal food puch, lying b/w the hypopharynx & the inner wall of the clypeus, often w/a muscular pump
  127. FLABELLUM
    ~in bees the lobe at the tip of the glossae "tongue"
  128. GLOSSA
    ~the "tongue", one pair of lobes on the inner apex of the prementum
  129. PARAGLOSSA
    ~one of a pair of lobes distolateral on the prementum of the labium, lying outside the glossae, but mesal to the labial palp
  130. SUCTORIAL
    ~probiscus formed of labrum, hypopharynx & labium galea lost
  131. STYLET
    ~one of the elongate parts of piercing/sucking mouthparts, a needle-like structure
  132. SCAPE
    ~1st segment of antenna
  133. PEDICEL
    ~the 2nd antenna segment
  134. FLAGELLUM
    • ~3rd segment & beyond of antenna
    • ~more generally, any whip or whip-like structure
  135. JOHNSTON'S ORGAN
    ~a chordotonal (sensory) organ w/i the antenna pedicel
  136. PROTHORAX
    ~1st segment of thorax
  137. MESOTHORAX
    ~2nd segment of thorax
  138. METATHORAX
    ~3rd segment of thorax
  139. PTEROTHORAX
    ~the enlarged 2nd & 3rd segments of the thorax bearing the wings in pterygotes
  140. PRESCUTUM
    ~the anterior 3rd of the alinotum, in front of the scutum
  141. ALINOTUM
    ~wing bearing plate on the dorsum of the mesothorax or metathorax
  142. SCUTELLUM
    ~the posterior 3rd of the alinotum, lying behind the scutum
  143. POSTNOTUM
    ~the posterior part of a pterothoracic notum bearing the phragmata that support longitudinal muscles
  144. SCUTUM
    ~middle 3rd of the alinotum in front of scutellum
  145. BASALARE
    ~a small sclerite, one of the epipleurites that lies anterior to the pleural wing process; an attachment for the direct flight muscles
  146. SUBALARE
    ~small sclerite, one of the epipleurites that lies posterior to the pleural wing process, forming an attachement for the direct flight muscles
  147. EPISTERNUM
    ~the anterior division of the pleuron, separated from the epimeron by the pleural suture
  148. EPIMERON
    ~posterior division of the pleuron of a thorax, separated from the episternum by the pleural suture
  149. PLEURAL SUTURE
    ~the externally visible indication of the pleural ridge providing reinforcement for the wing articulation
  150. TROCHANTIN
    ~small sclerite anterior to the coxa
  151. BASISTERNUM
    ~the main sclerite of the eusternum, lying b/w the anterior presternum & posterior sternellum
  152. STERNELLUM
    ~the small sclerite of the eusternum, lying posterior to the basisternum
  153. EUSTERNUM
    ~the dominant ventral plate of the thorax that frequently extends into the pleural region
  154. SPINASTERNUM
    ~an intersternite bearing a spina spometimes used w/the eusterna of the prothorax & mesothorax, but never the metathorax
  155. COXA
    ~the proximal (basal) leg segment
  156. FEMUR
    ~the 3rd segment of an insect leg (from the body), following the coxa & trochanter, often the stoutest leg segment
  157. TIBIA
    ~the 4th leg segment following the femur
  158. TARSUS
    ~the leg segment distal to the tibi, comprising of one to five tarsomeres and apically bearing the pretarsus
  159. TROCHANTER
    ~the 2nd leg segment, following the coxa
  160. AROLIUM
    ~pretarsal pad-like or sac-like structures lying b/w the claws
  161. PULVILLI
    ~bladder-like pretarsal appendage
  162. FOSSORIAL
    ~digging, or adapted to digging
  163. RAPTORIAL
    ~adapted for capturing prey by grasping
  164. TEGMINA
    ~A leathery, hardened forewing
  165. ELYTRA
    ~the modified, hardened forewing of a beetle that protects the hindwing
  166. HEMELYTRA
    ~the forewing of heteroptera, w/a thickened basal section & membranous apical section
  167. HALTERES
    ~modified hindwing in Diptera acting as a balancer
  168. PTEROSTIGMA
    ~a pigmented (and denser) spot near the anterior margin of the fore & sometimes hind wing
  169. REMIGIUM
    ~the anterior part of the wing, usually more rigid than the posterior clavus & w/more veins
  170. ANAL AREA
    ~posterior part of the wing, supported by the anal veins
  171. JUGAL AREA
    ~the posterobasal area of the wing, delimited by the jugal fold & the wing margin
  172. CLAVAL FURROW
    ~a flexion -line on the wing that separates teh clavus from the remigium
  173. HUMERAL PLATE
    ~one of the articular sclerites of the neopteran wing base
  174. TEGULA
    ~1 of the articular sclerites of the neopteran wing, lying @ the base of the costa
  175. AXILLARY PLATES
    ~2 articulating plates tat are fused w/the veins in an odonate wing; the anterior supports the costal vein, the posterior supports the remaining veins
  176. COSTAL
    ~the most anterior longitudinal wing vein, running along the costal margin of the wing & ending near the apex
  177. CROSSVEINS
    ~transverse wing veins that link the longitudinal veins
  178. DECIDUOUS
    ~falling off, detaching
  179. APTERY
    ~no wings
  180. BRACHYPTERY
    ~shortened wings
  181. SPIRACLES
    ~external opening of the tracheal system
  182. CERCUS
    ~one of a pair of appendages originating from abdominal segment 11 but usually visible as if an segment
  183. OVIPOSITOR
    ~organ used for laying eggs
  184. GONAPOPHYSIS
    ~a valve (part of the shaft) of the ovipositor
  185. GONOSTYLE
    ~the style of the 9th segment often functioning as a male clasper
  186. GONOPORE
    ~opening of the genital duct; in the unmodified female the opening of the common oviduct
  187. APPENDICULAR OVIPOSITOR
    ~the true ovipositor formed from appendages of segments 8 & 9
  188. SUBSTITUTIONAL OVIPOSITOR
    ~an ovipositor

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