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  1. Cephalic
  2. Nasal
  3. frontal
  4. Cranial
    surrounding the brain
  5. oral
  6. occipital
    back of head
  7. Auricular
  8. Orbital
  9. cervical
  10. Buccal
  11. mental
  12. First section
    Coronal (frontal)
  13. 2nd section
    traverse (horizontal or top to bottom)
  14. 3rd section
    sagittal or midsagital
  15. Oblique
    odd angle cuts or views
  16. Anatomical Position
    person is standing with feet parallel and flat on floor, head is level and eyes look foreward towards observor and the arms are at the side with palms facing forward and thumbs pointing away from body
  17. Body cavaties
    • Cranial cavaty includes vertebral canal
    • Thoracic cavaty
    • Abdominopelvic cavity
  18. ventral thoracic has 3 regions
    • regions one and two = pleural cavities
    • pleural cavities house the lungs

    • region 3 = pericardial
    • houses the heart
  19. Membranes
    line natural opening of the body
  20. serous membranes
    line and cover body cavities
  21. thoracic cavities
    lungs & heart
  22. membranes that cover are called
  23. the heart is enclosed by a two layered serous membrane called
  24. outer most layer of pericardium forms sac around the heart
    parietal pericardium
  25. forms the hearts external surface membrane
    visceral pericardium
  26. lungs are lined by 2 layered serous membrane called
  27. outer layer of pleura
    parietal pleura (it lines the internal surface of thoracic wall.)
  28. inner layer of pleura
    visceral pleura (covers the external surface of the lung)
  29. potential space between parietal and visceral layers
    pleural cavity ( location of lubricating serous fluid)
  30. synovial membrane
    encapsulate mobile joints, self lubricating
  31. cutaneous membrane
  32. histology
    study of tissues
  33. 3 types of muscle tissue
    • skeletal
    • cardiac (heart)
    • smoth
  34. 1st three (of 9) top row left two right abdominopelvic regions
    • Right hypochondriac region
    • Epigastric region
    • Left hypochondriac region
  35. 2nd set of three middle row left to right abdominopelvic region
    • right lumbar region
    • umbilical region
    • left lumbar region
  36. 3rd set of three bottom row left to right
    • Right iliac region
    • Hypogastric region
    • Left iliac region
  37. list each quadrant of the Abdominopelvic quadrants
    • Right upper quadrant (RUQ)
    • Left Upper (LUQ)
    • Right Lower quadrant (RLQ)
    • Left lower quadrant (LLQ)
  38. Anterior
    in Front of
  39. Posterior
    Back of
  40. Dorsal
    at the back side
  41. Ventral
    belly side of body
  42. Superior
    closer to the head
  43. Inferior
    closer to the feet
  44. Caudal
    at the rear or tail end
  45. Cranial
    At the head end
  46. Rostral
    toward the nose
  47. Medial
    toward the vertical midline of the body
  48. Lateral
    Away from the vertical midline of the body
  49. Superficial
    on the outside
  50. Deep
    on the inside, underneath another structure
  51. Proximal
    closest to point of attachment to trunk
  52. Distal
    Furthest from point of attachment to trunk
  53. Brachial
  54. Axillary
  55. deltoid
  56. antecubital
    front of elbow
  57. Antebrachial
  58. Coxal
  59. Carpal`
  60. palmer
  61. digital
  62. femoral
  63. Patellar
  64. Crural
  65. Pes
  66. Sternal
  67. pectoral
  68. mammary
  69. abdominal
  70. inguinal
  71. tarsal
  72. Dorsom of the hand
    opposite of palm knuckle side
  73. olecranal
  74. vertebral
    spinal column
  75. sural
  76. calcaneal
  77. plantar
    sole of foot
  78. popliteal
    back of knee
  79. lumbar
    lower back
  80. gluteal
  81. sacral
    but crack
  82. The axial region consist of
    • HEAD
    • NECK
    • TRUNK
  83. appendicular region consist of
    limbs or appendages that attach to the bodys axis
  84. scapular
    shoulder blade
  85. pollex
  86. hallux
    great toe
  87. Location of simple squamous Epithelium:
    Location: Air sacs in lungs, lining of heart chambers and lumen of blood vessels (endothelium)
  88. Location of simple cuboidal epithelium
    location: thyroid gland follicles; kidney tubules; ducts and secretory regions of most glands: surface of ovary
  89. Location of Nonciliated simple columnar Epithelium:
    Lining of most digestive tract; lining of stomach does not contain goblet cells.
  90. location of Ciliated Simple Columnar Epithelium;
    Lining of uterine tubes and larger bronchioles of repiratory tract
  91. Location of Nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium
    Lining of oral cavity, part of pharynx, esophagus, vagina, and anus
  92. Location of keratinized stratified Squamous Epithelium; ?
    Epidermis of skin
  93. Location of Stratified Cuboidal epithelium?
    found in large ducts in most exocrine glands and in some parts of the male uretha
  94. Location of Stratafied Columnar Epithelium?
    Rare; found in large ducts of some exocrine glands and in some regions of the male uretha
  95. Location of Psuedostratified Columnar Epithelium?
    • Ciliated form lines most of respiratory tract
    • Nonciliated form is rare; lines epididymis and part of male urethra
  96. Location of Transitional Epithelium:?
    Lining of urinary bladder, ureters, and part of urethra
  97. Simple Epithelium; describe basic structure?
    One layer thick; all cells are tightly bound
  98. Simple squamous; describe basic structure?
    one layer of flattened cells
  99. Simple cuboidal; describe basic structure?
    one layer of cells about as tall as they are wide
  100. simple columnar, nonciliated; describe basic structure?
    one layer of nonciliated cells that are taller than they are wide, cells may contain microvilli.
  101. simple columnar, ciliated; describe basic structure?
    one layer of ciliated cells that are taller than they are wide
  102. Stratafied Epithelium; describe basic structure?
    two or more cell layers thick, only deepest layer directly attaches to the basement membrane.
  103. Stratafied squamous, keratinized; describe basic structure?
    many layers thick; no keratin in cells; surface layers are alive, flat, and moist
  104. Stratafied cuboidal; describe basic structure?
    two or more layers of cells; apical layer of cells is cuboidal-shape
  105. Stratafied columnar; describe basic structure?
    two or more layers of cells; cells in apical layer are columnar-shaped
  106. other types of epithelium, describe basic structure?
    Cell layers vary, from single to many
  107. Psuedostratified columnar; describe basic structure?
    one layer of cells of varying heights, all cells attach to basment membrane.
  108. Transitional epithelium, describe basic structure?
    multiple layers of polyhedral cells(when tissue is relaxed) or flattened cells ( when tissue is distended)
  109. Epithelial tissue; general function?
    Covers surfaces; lines insides of organs and body cavaties
  110. Connective tissue;general function?
    Protects, binds together, and supports organs
  111. Muscle tissue; general function?
    facilitates movement of skeleton or organ walls
  112. Nervous tissue; general function?
    • Neurons: Control activities, process information
    • Glial cells: Support and protect neurons
  113. Resident Cells; function?
    maintain and repair extracllular matrix; store materials
  114. Fibroblast cell; function?
    produce fibers and ground substance of the extracellular matrix.
  115. Adipocytes cell : function?
    Store lipids reserves
  116. Fixed macrophages cells; function?
    phagocytize foreign material (white blood cells)
  117. Mesenchymal cells; function?
    divide in response to injury to produce new connective tissue cells
  118. Wandering cells; function?
    repair damaged extracellular matrix; active in imune response
  119. Mast cells: function?
    release histamin and heparin to stimulate local inflamation
  120. Plasma cells; function?
    Form anitbodies that bind to foreign substances, bacteria, viruses
  121. Free macrophages; function?
    Phagocytize foreign materials
  122. other leukocytes;function?
    Attack foreign materials or directly combat bacteria
  123. List four types of resident cells
    • 1. Fibroblast
    • 2. Adipocytes
    • 3. Fixed macrophages
    • 4. Mesenchymal cells
  124. list four types of wandering cells?
    • 1. Mast cellls
    • 2. Plasma cells
    • 3. Free Macrophages
    • 4. Other leukocytes
  125. 3 types of loose CT
    • 1. Areolar
    • 2. Adipose ct
    • 3. Reticular ct
  126. 3 types Dense CT
    • 1. Dense regular ct
    • 2. Dense iregular ct
    • 3. Elastic ct
  127. Location of Areolar ct
    surrounds nerves, vessels, subcutaneous layer ( under skin)
  128. location of Adipose CT
    subcutaneous layer; surrounding kidney and selected other organs
  129. location of reticular ct
    Stroma of spleen, liver, lymph nodes, bone marrow
  130. location of Dense regular ct
    tendons and ligaments
  131. Location of Dense irregular ct
    dermis; capsules of organs
  132. location of Elastic ct
    walls of large arteries
  133. basic structure description of Loose CT
    fibers are loosley arranged
  134. basic structure description of dense ct
    protien fibers densley packed together
  135. List the 3 supporting connective tissue; cartliage
    • 1. hyaline cartilage
    • 2. fibrocartilage
    • 3. Elastic cartilage
  136. Location of elastic cartilage?
    External ear; epiglottis of the larynx
  137. Location of Fibrocartilage
    Intervertebral discs; pubic symphysis; menisci of knee
  138. Location of Hyaline Cartilage
    Most of fetal skeleton, larynx, trachea, nose, covers articular ends of long bones
  139. List the four types of tissue:
    • 1. CT
    • 2. muscle tissue
    • 3. nervous system
    • 4. epithelial
  140. List the 7 functions of the Integument (skin)
    • 1. Protection
    • 2. Prevention of water loss
    • 3. Temp regulation
    • 4. Metabolic Regulation
    • 5. Immune defense
    • 6. Sensory Reception
    • 7. Excretion by means of secretion
  141. Name the 3 distinct layers of the Integument system
    • 1. epidermis
    • 2. dermis
    • 3. Subcutaneous
  142. five layers of the epidermis are?
    • 1. Stratum corneum (outermost layer 20-30 cells thick)
    • 2. Stratum lucidum
    • 3. stratum granulosum
    • 4. stratum spinosum
    • 5. stratum basale (living layer)
  143. Dermis has two layers called?
    • 1. Papillary layer
    • 2. Reticular layer
  144. Describe Basal cell carcinoma
    • most common
    • least dangerous
    • ussually occurs on face
  145. describe squamous cell carcinoma
    • usually appear on scalp ears lower lip or back of hand
    • arise from keratinocytes of stratum spinosum
  146. Describe malignant Melanoma
    • most deadly
    • arises from melanocytes
    • characterized by change in mole diametter
  147. List the 3 types/ categories of glands
    • Sweat (sudoriferous)
    • Sebaceous glands
    • other glands
  148. Location of Apocrine glands
    axillary, anal, areolar, and pubic region
  149. 2 types of sweat glands
    • 1. Apocrine
    • 2. Merocrine
  150. Location of merocrine glands
    • through out body , except external genitilia, nipples and lips.
    • most common on palms, soles, and forehead
  151. location of sebaceous glands
    hair follicles
  152. list the two glands under other,
    • 1. ceruminous
    • 2. Mammary glands
  153. location of ceruminous gland
    External acoustic meatus (Produces ear wax)
  154. location of mammary gland
    breasts ( secreats milk to offspring)
Card Set:
2011-09-11 21:23:26
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