Card Set Information
surrounding the brain
back of head
traverse (horizontal or top to bottom)
sagittal or midsagital
odd angle cuts or views
person is standing with feet parallel and flat on floor, head is level and eyes look foreward towards observor and the arms are at the side with palms facing forward and thumbs pointing away from body
Cranial cavaty includes vertebral canal
ventral thoracic has 3 regions
regions one and two = pleural cavities
pleural cavities house the lungs
region 3 = pericardial
houses the heart
line natural opening of the body
line and cover body cavities
lungs & heart
membranes that cover are called
the heart is enclosed by a two layered serous membrane called
outer most layer of pericardium forms sac around the heart
forms the hearts external surface membrane
lungs are lined by 2 layered serous membrane called
outer layer of pleura
parietal pleura (it lines the internal surface of thoracic wall.)
inner layer of pleura
visceral pleura (covers the external surface of the lung)
potential space between parietal and visceral layers
pleural cavity ( location of lubricating serous fluid)
encapsulate mobile joints, self lubricating
study of tissues
3 types of muscle tissue
1st three (of 9) top row left two right abdominopelvic regions
Right hypochondriac region
Left hypochondriac region
2nd set of three middle row left to right abdominopelvic region
right lumbar region
left lumbar region
3rd set of three bottom row left to right
Right iliac region
Left iliac region
list each quadrant of the Abdominopelvic quadrants
Right upper quadrant (RUQ)
Left Upper (LUQ)
Right Lower quadrant (RLQ)
Left lower quadrant (LLQ)
in Front of
at the back side
belly side of body
closer to the head
closer to the feet
at the rear or tail end
At the head end
toward the nose
toward the vertical midline of the body
Away from the vertical midline of the body
on the outside
on the inside, underneath another structure
closest to point of attachment to trunk
Furthest from point of attachment to trunk
front of elbow
Dorsom of the hand
opposite of palm knuckle side
sole of foot
back of knee
The axial region consist of
appendicular region consist of
limbs or appendages that attach to the bodys axis
Location of simple squamous Epithelium:
Location: Air sacs in lungs, lining of heart chambers and lumen of blood vessels (endothelium)
Location of simple cuboidal epithelium
location: thyroid gland follicles; kidney tubules; ducts and secretory regions of most glands: surface of ovary
Location of Nonciliated simple columnar Epithelium:
Lining of most digestive tract; lining of stomach does not contain goblet cells.
location of Ciliated Simple Columnar Epithelium;
Lining of uterine tubes and larger bronchioles of repiratory tract
Location of Nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium
Lining of oral cavity, part of pharynx, esophagus, vagina, and anus
Location of keratinized stratified Squamous Epithelium; ?
Epidermis of skin
Location of Stratified Cuboidal epithelium?
found in large ducts in most exocrine glands and in some parts of the male uretha
Location of Stratafied Columnar Epithelium?
Rare; found in large ducts of some exocrine glands and in some regions of the male uretha
Location of Psuedostratified Columnar Epithelium?
lines most of respiratory tract
Nonciliated form is rare
; lines epididymis and part of male urethra
Location of Transitional Epithelium:?
Lining of urinary bladder, ureters, and part of urethra
Simple Epithelium; describe basic structure?
One layer thick; all cells are tightly bound
Simple squamous; describe basic structure?
one layer of flattened cells
Simple cuboidal; describe basic structure?
one layer of cells about as tall as they are wide
simple columnar, nonciliated; describe basic structure?
one layer of nonciliated cells that are taller than they are wide, cells may contain microvilli.
simple columnar, ciliated; describe basic structure?
one layer of ciliated cells that are taller than they are wide
Stratafied Epithelium; describe basic structure?
two or more cell layers thick, only deepest layer directly attaches to the basement membrane.
Stratafied squamous, keratinized; describe basic structure?
many layers thick; no keratin in cells; surface layers are alive, flat, and moist
Stratafied cuboidal; describe basic structure?
two or more layers of cells; apical layer of cells is cuboidal-shape
Stratafied columnar; describe basic structure?
two or more layers of cells; cells in apical layer are columnar-shaped
other types of epithelium, describe basic structure?
Cell layers vary, from single to many
Psuedostratified columnar; describe basic structure?
one layer of cells of varying heights, all cells attach to basment membrane.
Transitional epithelium, describe basic structure?
multiple layers of polyhedral cells(when tissue is relaxed) or flattened cells ( when tissue is distended)
Epithelial tissue; general function?
Covers surfaces; lines insides of organs and body cavaties
Connective tissue;general function?
Protects, binds together, and supports organs
Muscle tissue; general function?
facilitates movement of skeleton or organ walls
Nervous tissue; general function?
: Control activities, process information
Support and protect neurons
Resident Cells; function?
maintain and repair extracllular matrix; store materials
Fibroblast cell; function?
produce fibers and ground substance of the extracellular matrix.
Adipocytes cell : function?
Store lipids reserves
Fixed macrophages cells; function?
phagocytize foreign material (white blood cells)
Mesenchymal cells; function?
divide in response to injury to produce new connective tissue cells
Wandering cells; function?
repair damaged extracellular matrix; active in imune response
Mast cells: function?
release histamin and heparin to stimulate local inflamation
Plasma cells; function?
Form anitbodies that bind to foreign substances, bacteria, viruses
Free macrophages; function?
Phagocytize foreign materials
Attack foreign materials or directly combat bacteria
List four types of resident cells
3. Fixed macrophages
4. Mesenchymal cells
list four types of wandering cells?
1. Mast cellls
2. Plasma cells
3. Free Macrophages
4. Other leukocytes
3 types of loose CT
2. Adipose ct
3. Reticular ct
3 types Dense CT
1. Dense regular ct
2. Dense iregular ct
3. Elastic ct
Location of Areolar ct
surrounds nerves, vessels, subcutaneous layer ( under skin)
location of Adipose CT
subcutaneous layer; surrounding kidney and selected other organs
location of reticular ct
Stroma of spleen, liver, lymph nodes, bone marrow
location of Dense regular ct
tendons and ligaments
Location of Dense irregular ct
dermis; capsules of organs
location of Elastic ct
walls of large arteries
basic structure description of Loose CT
fibers are loosley arranged
basic structure description of dense ct
protien fibers densley packed together
List the 3 supporting connective tissue; cartliage
1. hyaline cartilage
3. Elastic cartilage
Location of elastic cartilage?
External ear; epiglottis of the larynx
Location of Fibrocartilage
Intervertebral discs; pubic symphysis; menisci of knee
Location of Hyaline Cartilage
Most of fetal skeleton, larynx, trachea, nose, covers articular ends of long bones
List the four types of tissue:
2. muscle tissue
3. nervous system
List the 7 functions of the Integument (skin)
2. Prevention of water loss
3. Temp regulation
4. Metabolic Regulation
5. Immune defense
6. Sensory Reception
7. Excretion by means of secretion
Name the 3 distinct layers of the Integument system
five layers of the epidermis are?
1. Stratum corneum (outermost layer 20-30 cells thick)
2. Stratum lucidum
3. stratum granulosum
4. stratum spinosum
5. stratum basale (living layer)
Dermis has two layers called?
1. Papillary layer
2. Reticular layer
Describe Basal cell carcinoma
ussually occurs on face
describe squamous cell carcinoma
usually appear on scalp ears lower lip or back of hand
arise from keratinocytes of stratum spinosum
Describe malignant Melanoma
arises from melanocytes
characterized by change in mole diametter
List the 3 types/ categories of glands
Location of Apocrine glands
axillary, anal, areolar, and pubic region
2 types of sweat glands
Location of merocrine glands
through out body , except external genitilia, nipples and lips.
most common on palms, soles, and forehead
location of sebaceous glands
list the two glands under other,
2. Mammary glands
location of ceruminous gland
External acoustic meatus (Produces ear wax)
location of mammary gland
breasts ( secreats milk to offspring)