Lipids 3

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Author:
ajepson
ID:
98781
Filename:
Lipids 3
Updated:
2011-08-28 19:45:09
Tags:
Biochem
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Description:
TAG synthesis
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  1. glycerol kinase
    uses ATP to convert glycerol into glycerol 3 phosphate for TAG synthesis

    Located in liver, intestinal mucosa, kidney, mammary glands
  2. glycerol 3 dehydrogenase
    converts dihydroxyacetone phosphate into glycerol 3 phosphate, using NADH --> NAD+
  3. Activation of fatty acids
    FFA + ATP + coASH --> fatty acyl co A + ADP + Pi

    Takes 2 ATP equivelents
  4. Conversion of glycerol 3 phosphate to TAG
    1. acyltransferase fatty acyl co A --> C1 of glycerol. = lypophosphatidic acid

    • 2. acyltransferase fatty co A --> C2 of glycerol.
    • phosphatidic acid

    • 3. PA phosphatase on C3 of glycerol
    • DAG

    • 4. acyltransferase onto C3 of glycerol
    • TAG
  5. What is a precursor for phosphatidyl inostinol?
    phosphatidic acid
  6. What is the precursor for phosphatidyl choline and phosphatidyl ethanolamine?
    DAG
  7. Formation of PI
    • 1. PA + CTP --> DAG-CDP + PPi
    • CTP phosphatidate cyytidyl transferase
    • 2. DAG-CDP + inostinol--> Phosphatidyl inostinol + CMP
  8. How is CTP used differently in formation of phosphatidyl inostinol as compared to phosphatidyl ethanolamine?
    CTP = DAG carrier in PI

    CTP = ethanolamine carrier in PE
  9. First step in forming phosphatidyl ethanolamine
    1. add ATP to ethanolamine --> phosphoethanolamine
  10. 2nd step in forming phosphadidyl ethanolamine
    Add CTP to phosphate ethanolamine -> CDP ethanolamine + PPi
  11. 3rd (last) step in forming PE
    CTP ethanolamin + DAG -> phosphatidyl ethanolamine + CMP
  12. How is TAG absorbed from the small intestine
    pancreatic lypases free FFA from TAG to get 2-monoacyl glycerol plus 2 FFA.

    2 monoacyl glycerol gets acylated by acyltransferase X2 to form TAG, packaged in chylomicrons.
  13. Formation of PS
    exchange PE for S
  14. How to convert PE to PC
    use S' acylmethionine to convert 3H into 3 CH3
  15. How is a glycerol ether different from a glycerolphospholipid?
    Contains a ether linkage on C1 through substitution of an acyl group for an alcohol
  16. How is a plasmalogen different than a glycerolphospholipid?
    Contains an ether likage and a double bond between C1 and C2
  17. Locations of lysis for A1, A2, B, C, and D phospholipases
    • A1--acetyl group on C1 of glycerol
    • A2--acetyl gorup on C2 of glycerol
    • B--C1 or C2 group of lysophospholipid
    • C--phosphorylated polar head group
    • D--dephosphorylated polar head group
  18. What is one example of an A2 phospholipid?
    Phospholipid A2 allowing a free fatty acid to be liberated from a cell membrane in the formation of arachodonate (20 carbon)
  19. What is sphingomyelin?
    A 18 carbon amino alcohol

    No glycerol backbone
  20. What are the 2 type of sphingosines?
    phosphospingosine (contain a phosphate group)

    glycolipid (contain sugars on the alcohol, no phosphates)
  21. ceramide
    spingosine + fatty acid
  22. formation of sphingomyelin
    PC + ceramine -> DAG + sphingomyelin
  23. Glycolipid
    ceramine plus a sugar on OH
  24. cerebroside
    contains only one sugar (glucose or galactose)
  25. Globoside
    contains 2-4 sugar residue oligosaccharide, no charged group
  26. Ganglioside
    contains longer oligosaccharide plus at least one sialic acid (charged w/ COO-)
  27. Where are spingolipids degraded?
    lysosomes
  28. Nieman-Pick diesease
    sphingomylin build up
  29. Gaucher Disease
    cerebroside build up
  30. Tay-Sachs Disease
    ganglioside build up
  31. Two possible fates of arachidonate acid
    leukotrienes or prostoglandins
  32. anti inflammatory coritcosteroid inhibitors
    inhibit phospholipase A2, prevents formation of arachidonate acid
  33. NSAIDs
    Inhibit COX 2 and COX 1
  34. hydrocortisone
    anti inflammatory corticosteriod
  35. prednisone
    anti inflammatory corticosteriod
  36. betamethasone
    anti inflammatory corticosteriod
  37. asprin
    cox inhibitor, covalent bond, irreversable
  38. indomethacin
    NSAID
  39. phenylbutazone
    NSAID
  40. Where is glycerol 3 phosphate dehydrogenase located?
    muslces and fat
  41. Where is glycerol kinase located?
    liver, kidney, intestinal mucosa, mammory glands

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