What is the Pentose Phosphate Pathway's main regulator, the main enzymes, and products?
Regulator is NADP/NADPH
Glucose 6 phosphate-> glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase-> 6-phosphogluconolactone-> Lactonase-> 6-phosphogluconate-> 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase-> 2 x NADPH+ and ribulose -->Ribose 5-phosphate or 2 fructose 6-phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
Depends on requirements of cell
What are the 3 different steps in Gluconeogenesis compared to glycolysis?
Pyruvate-> Pyruvate Carboxylase-> oxaloacetate->
PEP carboxylase-> phosphoenol pyruvate ... Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase
In liver, glucose 6- phosphatase can release glucose into blood.
What anaplerotic reaction involves pyruvate carboxylase?
Creation of Oxaloacetate from pyruvate.
How is glucose activated?
Glucose-1-phosphate + UTP ->UDP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase -> UDP-Glucose + PPi
What is a common side effect of Traditional Chinese Medicine?
Arsenic poisoning - no ATP from phosphoglycerate kinase step in glycolysis. It subs in for the phosphate during previous step and dissociates right away.
How is fructose processed?
Mainly in liver
fructose 1 phosphate -> aldolase B->glyceraldehyde(needs phosphorylation) and dihydroxyacetone phosphate ->glycolysis
What are the eicosanoids?
Derivatives of C-20 polyunsaturated fatty acids, hormones that affect cell in which they are produced or locally. Very short lives. Produced by all cells except RBC.
Prostanoids - prostaglandins and thromboxanes
What is the cyclooxygenase pathway and what does it make?
In ER, arachidonic acid-> prostaglandin synthase-> prostaglandin H-> Other prostaglandins and thromboxanes
How do you make cholesterol?
2 x acetyl-CoA-> Thiolase-> acetoacyl-CoA-(acetyl-CoA)>HMG-CoA synthase-> HMG-CoA-(2NADPH)> **HMG-CoA reductase**-> mevalonate-(3ATP)> isoprene-(2 more isoprene)> farnesyl-(farnesyl)> squalene-> cholesterol
How does an HDL maintain the surface gradient of low cholesterol?
Lecihin Cholesterol Acyl Transferase rapidly converts cholesterol to cholesteryl esters
What cells have Apo A-1?
HDL, Activates LCAT
What is atherosclerosis and how would you treat it?
buildup of deposits in the blood vessels consisting of cholesterol and debris.
-dietary restriction of cholesterol
-statin drugs(HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor)
-niacin administration(inhibits VLDL synthesis)
-bile acid sequestrant
-cholesterol absorption inhibitor