CHAPTER 3

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RX73
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98797
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CHAPTER 3
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2011-09-12 19:47:04
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HUMAN STRUCTURE FUNCTION CEDARVILLE
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CHAPTER 3
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  1. LIVING STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL UNITS ENCLOSED BY A MEMBRANE.
    CELLS
  2. THE PROCESS IN WHICH ONE CELL DIVIDES INTO TWO IDENTICAL CELLS.
    CELL DIVISION
  3. THE STUDY OF CELLULAR STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION.
    CELL BIOLOGY
  4. THE CELL'S FLEXIBLE OUTER SURFACE, SEPARATING THE CELL'S INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT FROM THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT.
    PLASMA MEMBRANE
  5. ALL THE CELLULAR CONTENTS BETWEEN THE PLASMA MEMBRANE AND THE NUCLEUS.
    CYTOPLASM
  6. THE FLUID PORTION OF CYTOPLASM; WATER, DISSOLVED SOLUTES, AND SUSPENDED PARTICLES.
    CYTOSOL
  7. LITTLE ORGANS THAT ARE SURROUNDED BY CYTOSOL.
    ORGANELLES
  8. A LARGE ORGANELLE THAT HOUSES MOST OF A CELL'S DNA.
    NUCLEUS
  9. A SINGLE MOLECULE OF DNA ASSOCIATED WITH SEVERAL PROTEINS.
    CHROMOSOME
  10. HEREDITARY UNITS THAT CONTROL MOST ASPECTS OF CELLULAR STRUCTURE.
    GENES
  11. A FLEXIBLE YET STUDY BARRIER THAT SURROUNDS & CONTAINS THE CYTOPLASM OF A CELL.
    PLASMA MEMBRANE
  12. TWO BACK-TO-BACK LAYERS THAT IS THE BASIC STRUCTURAL FRAMEWORK OF THE PLASMA MEMBRANE.
    LIPID BILAYER
  13. LIPIDS THAT CONTAIN PHOSPHORUS THAT ARE PRESENT IN THE MEMBRANE.
    PHOSPHOLIPIDS
  14. A STEROID WITH AN ATTACHED HYDROXYL(OH) GROUP THAT IS PART OF THE MEMBRANE LIPIDS.
    CHOLESTEROL
  15. LIPIDS WITH ATTACHED CARBOHYDRATE GROUPS THAT ARE PRESENT IN THE MEMBRANE.
    GLYCOLIPIDS
  16. HAVING BOTH POLAR AND NONPOLAR PARTS.
    AMPHIPATHIC
  17. WATER LOVING
    HYDROPHILIC
  18. WATER HATING
    HYDROPHOBIC
  19. A MEMBRANE PROTEIN THAT EXTENDS INTO OR THROUGH THE LIPID BILAYER AMONG THE FATTY ACID TAILS AND ARE FIRMLY EMBEDDED IN IT.
    INTEGRAL PROTEINS
  20. AN INTEGRAL PROTEIN THAT SPANS THE ENTIRE LIPID BILAYER AND PROTRUDES INTO BOTH THE CYTOSOL & EXTRACELLULAR FLUID.
    TRANSMEMBRANE PROTEIN
  21. PROTEINS THAT ARE NOT FIRMLY EMBEDDED, THEY ASSOCIATE LOOSELY WITH THE POLAR HEADS OF MEMBRANE LIPIDS OR WITH INTEGRAL PROTEINS AT THE INNER OR OUTER SURFACE.
    PERIPHERAL PROTEINS
  22. PROTEINS WITH CARBOHYDRATE GROUPS ATTACHED TO THE ENDS THAT PROTRUDE INTO THE EXTRACELLULAR FLUID.
    GLYCOPROTEINS.
  23. A SUGAR
  24. A SUGARY COAT FORMED BY THE CARBOHYDRATE PORTIONS OF GLYCOLIPIDES AND GLYCOPROTEINS.
    GLYCOCALYX
  25. PORES OR HOLES MADE BY INTEGRAL MEMBRANE PROTEINS THROUGH WHICH SPECIFIC IONS CAN FLOW INTO OR OUT OF THE CELL.
    ION CHANNELS
  26. INTEGRAL PROTEINS THAT SELECTIVELY MOVE A POLAR SUBSTANCE OR ION FROM ONE SIDE OF MEMBRANE TO THE OTHER.
    CARRIERS (TRANSPORTERS)
  27. INTEGRAL PROTEINS THAT SERVE AS CELLULAR RECOGNITION SITES.
    RECEPTORS
  28. A SPECIFIC MOLECULE THAT BINDS TO A RECEPTOR.
    LIGAND
  29. INTEGRAL PROTEINS THAT CATALYZE SPECIFIC CHEMICAL REACTIONS AT THE INSIDE OR OUTSIDE SURFACE OF THE CELL.
    ENZYMES
  30. INTEGRAL PROTEIN WHICH ANCHORS PROTEINS IN THE PLASMA MEMBRANCES OF NEIGHBORING CELLS TO ONE ANOTHER.
    LINKERS
  31. A MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEIN OR GYLOCLIPID THAT ENABLES A CELL TO RECOGNIZE OTHER CELLS OF THE SAME KINDS DURING TISSUE FORMATION OR TO RESPOND TO FOREIGN CELLS.
    CELL-IDENTITY MARKER
  32. THE PROPERTY OF PLASMA MEMBRANES THAT PERMIT SOME SUBSTANCES TO PASS MORE READILY THAN OTHERS.
    SELECTIVE PERMEABILITY
  33. A DIFFERENCE IN THE CONCENTRATION OF A CHEMICAL FROM ONE PLACE TO ANOTHER.
    CONCENTRATION GRADIENT
  34. A DIFFERENCE IN ELECTRIAL CHARGES BETWEEN TWO REGIONS.
    ELECTRICAL GRADIENT
  35. THE CHARGE DIFFERENCE THAT OCCURS ACROSS THE PLASMA MEMBRANE.
    MEMBRANE POTENTIAL
  36. THE COMBINED INFLUENCE OF THE CONCENTRATION GRADIENT AND THE ELECTRICAL GRADIENT ON MOVEMENT OF A PARTICULAR ION.
    ELECTROCHEMICAL GRADIENT
  37. WHEN A SUBSTANCE MOVES DOWN ITS CONCENTRATION OR ELECTRICAL GRADIENT TO CROSS A MEMBRANE USING ONLY ITS OWN KINETIC ENERGY.
    PASSIVE TRANSPORT PROCESS
  38. WHEN CELLULAR ENERGY IS USED TO DRIVE A SUBSTANCE "UPHILL" AGAINST ITS CONCENTRATION OR ELECTRICAL GRADIENT.
    ACTIVE TRANSPORT PROCESS
  39. TINY, SPHERICAL MEMBRANCE SACS.
    VESICLES
  40. A PASSIVE PROCESSS IN WHICH THE RANDOM MIXING OF PARTICLES IN A SOLUTION OCCURS BECAUSE OF THE PARTICLES' KINETIC ENERGY.
    DIFFUSION
  41. THE 5 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE DIFFUSION RATE OF SUBSTANCES ACROSS THE PLASMA MEMBRANE.
    • 1. STEEPNESS OF THE CONCENTRATION GRADIENT.
    • 2. TEMPERATURE.
    • 3. MASS OF THE DIFFUSING SUBSTANCE.
    • 4. SURFACE AREA.
    • 5. DIFFUSION DISTANCE.
  42. A PASSIVE PROCESS IN WHICH SUBSTANCES MOVE FREELY THROUGH THE LIPID BILAYER OF THE PLASMA MEMBRANE WITHOUT THE HELP OF TRANSPORT PROTEINS.
    SIMPLE DIFFUSION
  43. A PASSIVE PROCESS IN WHICH AN INTEGRAL MEMBRANE PROTEIN ASSISTS A SPECIFIC SUBSTANCE ACROSS THE MEMBRANE.
    FACILITATED DIFFUSION
  44. WHEN A SOLUTE MOVES DOWN ITS CONCENTRATION GRADIENT ACROSS THE LIPID BILAYER THROUGH A MEMBRANE CHANNEL.
    CHANNEL-MEDIATED FACILITATED DIFFUSION
  45. INTEGRAL TRANSMEMBRANE PROTEINS THAT ALLOW THE PASSAGE OF SMALL, INORGANIC IONS THAT ARE TOO HYDROPHILIC TO PENETRATE THE NONPOLAR INTERIOR OF THE LIPID BILAYER.
    ION CHANNELS
  46. WHEN A CARRIER IS USED TO MOVE A SOLUTE DOWN ITS CONCENTRATION GRADIENT ACROSS THE PLASMA MEMBRANE.
    CARRIER-MEDIATED FACILITATED DIFFUSION
  47. THE NUMBER OF CARRIERS AVAILABLE IN A PLASMA MEMBRANE WHICH LIMITS THE RATE AT WHICH FACILITATED DIFFUSION CAN OCCUR.
    TRANSPORT MAXIMUM
  48. A TYPE OF DIFFUSION IN WHICH THERE IS NET MOVEMENT OF A SOLVENT THROUGH A SELECTIVELY PERMEABLE MEMBRANE.
    OSMOSIS
  49. INTEGRAL MEMBRANE PROTEINS THAT FUNCTION AS WATER CHANNELS.
    AQUAPORINS
  50. PRESSURE EXERTED BY A LIQUID ON A MEMBRANE.
    HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE
  51. PRESSURE EXERTED BY A SOLUTION WITH AN IMPERMEABLE SOLUTE.
    OSMOTIC PRESSURE
  52. THE MEASURE OF A SOLUTION'S ABILITY TO CHANGE THE VOLUME OF CELLS BY ALTERING THEIR WATER CONTENT.
    TONICITY
  53. A SOLUTION IS WHICH A CELL MAINTAINS ITS NORMAL SHAPE AND VOLUME.
    ISOTONIC SOLUTION
  54. A SOLUTION THAT HAS A LOWER CONCENTRATION OF SOLUTES THAN THE CYTOSOL OF A CELL.
    HYPOTONIC SOLUTION
  55. THE RUPTURE OF RED BLOOD CELLS WHEN PLACED IN A HYPOTONIC SOLUTION.
    HEMOLYSIS
  56. THE RUPTURE OF A CELL(OTHER THAN A RBC) IN A HYPOTONIC SOLUTION.
    LYSIS
  57. A SOLUTION THAT HAS A HIGHER CONCENTRATION OF SOLUTES THAN THE CYTOSOL OF A CELL.
    HYPERTONIC SOLUTION
  58. A SHRINKAGE OF CELLS WHEN PLACED IN A HYPERTONIC SOLUTION.
    CRENATION
  59. LIQUIDS THAT ARE INFUSED INTO THE BLOOD OF A VEIN.
    INTRAVENOUS SOLUTIONS (IV)
  60. THE TYPE OF TRANSPORT THAT TAKES PLACE BY THE ENERGY DERIVED FROM HYDROLYSIS OF ATP WHICH CHANGES THE SHAPE OF A CARRIER PROTEIN AND PUMPS A SUBSTANCE ACROSS THE PLASMA MEMBRANE.
    PRIMARY ACTIVE TRANSPORT
  61. CARRIER PROTEINS THAT MEDIATE PRIMARY ACTIVE TRANSPORT.
    PUMPS
  62. THE MOST PREVALENT PRIMARY ACTIVE TRANSPORT CARRIER, EXPELS SODIUM IONS AND BRINGS POTASSIUM IONS IN.
    • SODIUM-POTASSIUM PUMP
    • NA+/K+ ATPase
  63. THE TYPE OF TRANSPORT THAT USES THE ENGERY STORED IN A Na+ OR H+ CONCENTRATION GRADIENT TO DRIVE OTHER SUBSTANCES ACROSS THE MEMBRANE AGAINST THEIR OWN CONCENTRATION GRADIENTS.
    SECONDARY ACTIVE TRANSPORT
  64. TRANSPORTER THAT MOVES TWO SUBSTANCES IN THE SAME DIRECTION.(AS A PART OF A SECONDARY ACTIVE TRANSPORT)
    SYMPORTER
  65. TRANSPORTER THAT MOVES TWO SUBSTANCES IN OPPOSITE DIRECTIONS ACROSS THE MEMBRANE.(AS A PART OF A SECONDARY ACTIVE TRANSPORT)
    ANTIPORTER
  66. PROCESS BY WHICH MATERIALS MOVE INTO A CELL BY A VESICLE FORMED BY THE PLASMA MEMBRANE.
    ENDOCYTOSIS
  67. PROCESS BY WHICH MATERIALS MOVE OUT OF A CELL BY FUSION WITH THE PLASMA MEMBRANE OF VESICLES FORMED INSIDE THE CELL.
    EXOCYTOSIS
  68. A HIGHLY SELECTIVE TYPE OF ENDOCYTOSIS BY WHICH CELLS TAKE UP SPECIFIC LIGANDS.
    RECEPTOR-MEDIATED ENDOCYTOSIS
  69. A FORM OF ENDOCYTOSIS IN WHICH THE CELL ENGULFS LARGE SOLID PARTICLES.
    PHAGOCYTOSIS
  70. BODY CELLS THAT ARE ABLE TO CARRY OUT PHAGOCYTOSIS.
    PHAGOCYTES
  71. THE TWO MAIN TYPES OF PHAGOCYTES.
    • MACROPHAGES(FOUND IN BODY TISSUES)
    • NEUTROPHILS(A TYPE OF WHITE BLOOD CELL)
  72. PROJECTIONS OF A CELLS PLASMA MEMBRANE AND CYTOPLASM DURING PHAGOCYTOSIS.
    PSEUDOPODS
  73. A FORM OF ENDOCYTOSIS IN WHICH TINY DROPLETS OF EXTRACELLULAR FLUID ARE TAKEN UP.
    BULK-PHASE ENDOCYTOSIS(PINOCYTOSIS)
  74. AN ACTIVE TRANSPORT PROCESS IN WHICH VESICLES UNDERGO ENDOCYTOSIS ON ONE SIDE OF CELL, MOVE ACROSS THE CELL, & THEN UNDERGO EXOCYTOSIS ON THE OPPOSITE SIDE.
    TRANSCYTOSIS
  75. THE FLUID PORTION OF THE CYTOPLASM THAT SURROUNDS THE ORGANELLES & MAKES UP ABOUT 55% OF TOTAL CELL VOLUME.
    CYTOSOL (INTRACELLULAR FLUID)
  76. SPECIALIZED STRUCTURES WITHIN THE CELL THAT HAVE CHARACTERISTIC SHAPES; PERFORM SPECIFIC FUNCTIONS IN CELLULAR GROWTH, MAINTENANCE, & REPRODUCTION.
    ORGANELLES
  77. A NETWORK OF PROTEIN FILAMENTS THAT EXTENDS THROUGHOUT THE CYTOSOL.
    CYTOSKELETON
  78. THE THINNEST ELEMENTS OF THE CYTOSKELETON; COMPOSED OF ACTIN
    MICROFILAMENTS
  79. MICROFILAMENTS THAT PROVIDE MECHANICAL SUPPORT FOR CELL EXTENSIONS; NONMOTILE, MICROSCOPIC FINGERLIKE PROJECTIONS OF THE PLASMA MEMBRANE
    MICROVILLI
  80. THE ELEMENT OF THE CYTOSKELETON THAT THICKER THAN MICROFILAMENTS BUT THINNER THAN MICROTUBULES.
    INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS
  81. THE LARGEST PART OF THE CYTOSKELETON; LONG,UNBRANCHED HOLLOW TUBES COMPOSED OF TUBULIN.
    MICROTUBULES
  82. THIS ORGANELLE IS LOCATED NEAR THE NUCLEUS & CONSISTS OF A PAIR OF CENTRIOLES AND PERICENTRIOLAR MATERIAL.
    CENTROSOME
  83. CYLINDRICAL STRUCTURE, COMPOSED OF NINE CLUSTERS OF THREE MICROTUBULES ARRANGED IN A CIRCULAR PATTERN; PART OF THE CENTROSOME
    CENTRIOLE
  84. SURROUNDS THE CENTRIOLES OF THE CENTROSOME.
    PERICENTRIOLAR MATERIAL
  85. NUMEROUS, SHORT, HAIRLIKE PROJECTIONS THAT EXTEND FROM THE SURFACE OF A CELL, WHICH MOVES FLUIDS ALONG A CELL'S SURFACE.
    CILIA
  86. A PROJECTION ON A CELL SIMILIAR TO CILIA BUT MUCH LONGER (THE SPERM CELL'S TAIL)
    FLAGELLA
  87. ORGANELLE THAT IS THE SITE OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS.
    RIBOSOME
  88. THE ORGANELLE THAT IS A NETWORK OF MEMBRANE-ENCLOSED SACS OR TUBULES THAT EXTEND THROUGHOUT THE CYTOPLASM AND CONNECT TO THE NUCLEAR ENVELOPE.
    ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER)
  89. THE TYPE OF ER THAT HAS ITS OUTER SURFACE STUDDED WITH RIBOSOMES.
    ROUGH ER
  90. THE TYPE OF ER THAT DOES NOT HAVE RIBOSOMES ATTACHED TO IT; IT SYNTHESIZES FATTY ACIDS & STEROIDS.
    SMOOTH ER
  91. THE ORGANELLE THAT IS THE FIRST STEP IN THE TRANSPORT PATHWAY.
    GOLGI COMPLEX
  92. SMALL, FLATTENED MEMBRANOUS SACS WITH BULGING EDGES (GOLGI COMPLEX)
    CISTERNAE
  93. THE CISTERNA OF THE GOLGI COMPLEX THAT FACES THE ROUGH ER.
    CONVEX ENTRY (CIS FACE)
  94. THE CISTERNA OF THE GOLGI COMPLEX THAT FACES THE PLASMA MEMBRANE.
    CONCAVE EXIT (TRANS FACE)
  95. SACS OF THE GOLGI COMPLEX BETWEEN THE ENTRY AND EXIT FACES.
    MEDIAL CISTERNAE
  96. VESICLES THAT BUD FROM THE EDGES OF THE CISTERNAE TO MOVE SPECIFIC EMZYMES BACK TOWARD THE ENTRY FACE & MOVE SOME PARTIALLY MODIFIED PROTEINS TOWARD THE EXIT FACE.
    TRANSFER VESICLES
  97. VESICLES THAT DELIVER PROTEINS TO THE PLASMA MEMBRANE, WHERE THEY ARE DISCHARGED BY EXOCYTOSIS.
    SECRETORY VESICLES
  98. VESICLES THAT DELIVER THEIR CONTENTS TO THE PLASMA MEMBRANE FOR INCORPORTION INTO THE MEMBRANE.
    MEMBRANE VESICLES
  99. ORGANELLES THAT ARE MEMBRANE-ENCLOSED VESICLES THAT FORM FROM THE GOLGI COMPLEX; THEY CONTAIN SEVERAL TYPES OF POWERFUL DIGESTIVE ENZYMES.
    LYSOSOMES
  100. AN INHERITED CONDITION CHARACTERIZED BY THE ABSENCE OF A SINGLE LYSOSOMAL ENZYME CALLED HEX A.
    TAY-SACHS DISEASE
  101. GROUP OF ORGANELLES SIMILIAR TO LYSOSOMES BUT SMALLER; CONTAIN SEVERAL OXIDASES.
    PEROXISOMES
  102. ORGANELLES THAT ARE BARREL-SHAPED CONSISTING OF FOUR STACKED RINGS OF PROTEIN AROUND A CENTRAL CORE.
    PROTEASOMES
  103. THE "POWERHOUSES" OF THE CELL; GENERATES MOST OF THE ATP THROUGH AEROBIC RESPIRATION.
    MITOCHONDRIA
  104. A SERIES OF FOLDS IN THE INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE.
    CRISTAE
  105. THE CENTRAL FLUID-FILLED CAVITY OF THE MIROCHONDRION, ENCLOSED BY THE INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE.
    MATRIX
  106. THE SPHERICAL OR OVAL SHAPED STRUCTURE THAT IS USUALLY THE MOST PROMINENT FEATURE OF THE CELL.
    NUCLEUS
  107. A DOUBLE MEMBRANE THAT SEPARATES THE NUCLEUS FROM THE CYTOPLASM.
    NUCLEAR ENVELOPE
  108. OPENING THAT EXTEND THROUGH THE NUCLEAR ENVELOPE; THEY CONTROL THE MOVEMENT OF SUBSTANCES BETWEEN THE NUCLEUS AND CYTOPLASM.
    NUCLEAR PORES
  109. ONE OR MORE SPHERICAL BODIES INSIDE THE NUCLEUS THAT FUNCTION IN PRODUCING RIBOSOMES.
    NUCLEOLI
  110. THE CELL'S HEREDITARY UNITS.
    GENES
  111. A LONG MOLECULE OF DNA THAT IS COILED TOGETHER WITH SEVERAL PROTEINS.
    CHROMOSOME
  112. THE COMPLEX OF DNA, PROTEINS AND SOME RNA.
    CHROMATIN
  113. THE TOTAL GENETIC INFORMATION CARRIED IN A CELL OR AN ORGANISM.
    GENOME
  114. THE BEAD PART OF CHROMATIN; A DOUBLE-STRANDED DNA WRAPPED AROUND A HISTONE.
    NUCLEOSOME
  115. A CORE OF EIGHT PROTEINS THAT HAS A DOUBLE STRAND OF DNA WRAPPED AROUND IT(A PART OF CHROMATIN)
    HISTONE
  116. ALL OF AN ORGANISM'S PROTEINS.
    PROTEOME
  117. THE PROCESS IN WHICH A GENE'S DNA IS USE AS A TEMPLATE FOR SYNTHESIS OF A SPECIFIC PROTEIN.
    GENE EXPRESSION
  118. A SEQUENCE OF THREE NUCLEOTIDES IN DNA.
    BASE TRIPLET
  119. A DNA BASE TRIPLET THAT IS TRANSCRIBED AS A COMPLEMENTARY SEQUENCE OF THREE NUCLEOTIDES
    CODON
  120. THE SET OF RULES THAT RELATE THE BASE TRIPLET SEQUENCE OF DNA TO CORRESPONDING CODONS OF RNA & AMINO ACIDS.
    GENETIC CODE
  121. THE PROCESS BY WHICH GENETIC INFORMATION REPRESENTED BY THE SEQUENCE OF BASE TRIPLETS IN DNA IS COPIED INTO CODONS.
    TRANSCRIPTION
  122. TYPE OF RNA THAT DIRECTS THE SYNTHESIS OF A PROTEIN.
    MESSENGER RNA (mRNA)
  123. TYPE OF RNA THAT JOINS WITH RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS TO MAKE RIBOSOMES.
    RIBOSOMAL RNA (rRNA)
  124. TYPE OF RNA THAT BINDS TO AN AMINO ACID AND HOLDS IT IN PLACE ON A RIBOSOME UNTIL IT IS TRANSLATED.
    TRANSFER RNA (tRNA)
  125. A TRIPLET OF NUCLEOTIDES ON ONE END OF tRNA.
    ANTICODON
  126. THE ENZYME THAT CATALYZES TRANSCRIPTION OF DNA.
    RNA POLYMERASE
  127. A SPECIAL NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE LOCATED NEAR THE BEGINNING OF A GENE AND WHERE TRANSCRIPTION BEGINS.
    PROMOTER
  128. A SPECIAL NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE WHICH CODES FOR THE END OF A GENE.
    TERMINATOR
  129. REGIONS WITHIN A GENE THAT DO NOT CODE FOR PARTS OF PROTEINS.
    INTRONS
  130. REGIONS WITHIN A GENE THAT DO CODE FOR SEGEMENTS OF A PROTEIN.
    EXONS
  131. IMMEDIATELY AFTER TRANSCRIPTION, THE NAME OF THE TRANSCRIPT THAT INCLUDES INFORMATION FROM BOTH INTRONS AND EXONS.
    PRE-mRNA
  132. ENZYMES THAT CUT OUT THE INTRONS AND SPLICE TOGETHER THE EXONS OF THE PRE-mRNA.
    SMALL NUCLEAR RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS (snRNPS)
  133. THE PROCESS IN WHIH THE pre-mRNA TRANSCRIBED FROM A GENE IS SPLICED IN DIFFERENT WAYS TO PRODUCE SEVERAL DIFFERENT mRNAS.
    ALTERNATIVE SPLICING
  134. THE PROCESS IN WHICH THE NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE IN A mRNA MOLECULE SPECIFIES THE AMINO ACID SEQUENCE OF A PROTEIN.
    TRANSLATION
  135. SEVERAL RIBOSOMES ATTACHED TO THE SAME mRNA.
    POLYRIBOSOME
  136. AN ORGANISM THAT HAS BEEN ALTERED TO PRODUCE PROTEINS IT NORMALLY DOES NOT PRODUCE.
    RECOMBINANT
  137. THE DNA OF A RECOMBINANT THAT IS A COMBINATION OF DNA FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES.
    RECOMBINANT DNA
  138. THE MANIPULATION OF GENETIC MATERIAL.
    GENETIC ENGINEERING
  139. THE PROCESS BY WHICH CELLS OF THE HUMAN BODY REPRODUCE THEMSELVES.
    CELL DIVISION
  140. ANY CELL OF THE BODY OTHER THAN A GERM CELL.
    SOMATIC CELL
  141. A GAMETE (SPERM OR OOCYTE) OR ANY PRECURSOR CELL DESTINED TO BECOME A GAMETE.
    GERM CELL
  142. THE PROCESS BY WHICH A CELL UNDERGOES MITOSIS AND CYTOKINESIS TO PRODUCE TWO IDENTICAL CELLS.
    SOMATIC CELL DIVISION
  143. THE NUCLEAR DIVISION OF A CELL
    MITOSIS
  144. THE CYTOPLASMIC DIVISION OF A CELL
    CYTOKINESIS
  145. THE MECHANISM THAT PRODUCES GAMETES.
    REPRO
  146. THE MECHANISM THAT PRODUCES GAMETES.
    REPRODUCTIVE CELL DIVISION
  147. THE TWO STEP PROCESS IN REPRODUCTIVE CELL DIVISION IN WHICH THE NUMBER OF CHROMOSOMES IN THE NUCLEUS IS REDUCED BY HALF.
    MEIOSIS
  148. THE ORDERLY SEQUENCE OF EVENTS BY WHICH A SOMATIC CELL DUPLICATED ITS CONTENTS AND DIVIDES IN TWO.
    CELL CYCLE
  149. THE TWO CHROMOSOMES THAT MAKE UP A SINGLE PAIR OF CHROMOSOMES.
    HOMOLOGUOUS CHROMOSOMES (HOMOLOGS)
  150. THE PAIR OF CHROMOSOMES IN WHICH ONE IS DESIGNATED
  151. THE PAIR OF CHROMOSOMES IN WHICH ONE IS DESIGNATED X AND ONE Y.
    SEX CHROMOSOMES
  152. THE TERM FOR SOMATIC CELLS THAT CONTAIN TWO SETS OF CHROMOSOMES.
    DIPLOID CELLS
  153. THE PROCESS IN WHICH THE CELL REPLICATES ITS DNA.
    INTERPHASE
  154. THE INTERVAL BETWEEN THE MITOTIC PHASE AND THE S PHASE.
    G1 PHASE
  155. THE PHASE IN WHICH CELLS THAT REMAIN IN G1 FOR A VERY LONG TIME OR THOSE THAT ARE DESTINED TO NEVER DIVIDE AGAIN.
    G0 PHASE
  156. THE INTERVAL BETWEEN THE G1 AND G2 PHASES, LASTS ABOUT 8 HOURS; DNA REPLICATION OCCURS.
    S PHASE
  157. THE INTERVAL BETWEEN THE S PHASE AND THE MITOTIC PHASE; CELL GROWTH CONTINUES, ENZYMES AND OTHER PROTEINS ARE SYNTHESIZED, AND REPLICATION OF CENTROSOMES IS COMPLETED.
    G2 PHASE

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