lecture study guide #1

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Anonymous
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98844
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lecture study guide #1
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2011-09-16 23:15:50
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lecture stud guide cardiovascular system
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A&P review, ch 20 - the cardiovascular system; the heart, ch 21-the CV system; Blood Vessels & hemodynamics
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  1. Homeostasis:
    The process of mantaining a relatively stable internal environment
  2. Negative feedback:
    Reverses a change in a controlled condition

    the resopnse is directly opposite the inital stimulus.
  3. Positive Feedback systems:
    Strengthen or reinforce a change in one of the bodys controlled conditions

    response is in the same direction as the initial stimulus.
  4. Feedforward Mechanisim:
    -learned resopnse, can be unlearned
  5. Control Mechanisms/intrinsic control:
    when the control comes from "within" the organ
  6. Control Mechanisms/extrensic control
    when the control comes from outside the organ of action-

    typically from the nervous or endocrine system eg. "thinking abut food"stimulates an increase in stomach muscle contractions
  7. epithelial membranes:
    a combination of an epithlial layer and an underlying connective tissue layer
  8. Mucous Membrane (mucosa):
    • Areolar CT = Lamina propria
    • epithelium varies; tight junctions, goblet cells (mucin)
    • eg, respiratory, digestive, reproductive, most of urinary systems
    • always wet
    • open to exterior
    • important for the body's defense against pathogens
  9. Serous Membrane (serosa):
    • Areolar CT + Mesothelium (simple spuamous epithelium)
    • double layered; visceral & Parietal layers w/serous fluid
    • eg, pleura, pericardium, peritoneum
    • lines body cavity that does not open directly to the exterior
  10. Cardiovascular system =:
    • Heart
    • Blood Vessels
    • Blood (connective tissue); (RBC's & WBC's, platelets, proteins)
  11. Blood Flow=:
    • Heart
    • arteries
    • arterioles
    • capillaries
    • venules
    • veins
    • heart
  12. Systemic Circulation:
    to and from the body
  13. Pulmonary Circulation
    to and from the lungs
  14. Heart is composed of 3 layers:
    • endocardium
    • myocaardium
    • epicardium
  15. The perecardium is composed of 3 layers
    • fibrous pericardium
    • parietal layer of the serous pericardium
    • visceral layer of the serous pericardium
  16. endocardium:
    internal lining (of the heart) of mucous membrane with endothelial cells (simple squamous epithelium, the endothelium)
  17. Myocardium:
    the middle layer, of the heart, walls of cardiac muscle with dense irregular connective tissue borders & fetures
  18. Epicardium:
    acts as the external "skin" of the heart, also cts as the visceral lyer of the serous pericardium
  19. Fibrous pericardium
    an outer tough dense irregular connective tissue conering, surrounding the serous membrane
  20. Parietal layer of the serous pericardium
    areolar connective tissue in contact with the fibrous pericardium, lined with mesothelium, secreting serous fluid
  21. viscerl layer of the serous pericardium
    areolar connective tissuein contact with the heart's myocardium, lined with mesothelium, secreting serous fluid, also acts as the hearts epicardium
  22. *** INTERCALATED DISCS***:
    on test
    ***Desmosomes & Gap Junctions***
  23. ***DESMOSOMES***
    CONTAIN PLAQUE AND CADHERINS THAT EXTENDS INTO THE INTERCELLULAR SPACE TO ATTACH ADJACENT CELLS TOGETHER

    STRENGTH WITH "STRETCH" (LIKE VELCRO)
  24. ***GAP JUNCTIONS***
    • CONNECT NEIGHBORING CELLS VIA TINY FLUID FILLED TUNNELS CALLED CONNEXONS
    • COMMUNICATION OF CELLS WITHIN A TISSUE
    • IONS NUTRIENTS WASTE CHEMICAL AND ELECTRICAL SIGNALS TRAVEL THROUGH THE CONNEXONS FROM ONE CELL TO ANOTHER
  25. Skeletal Muscle Tissue
    • Attached to bones of the skeleton by tendons
    • have striations
    • voluntary-movement or contractions by conscious control
    • Ca++ stored in large complex sarcoplasmic reticulum
    • neurogenic- somatic nervous system
  26. Smooth Muscle Tissue
    • walls of hollow internal structures (single Unit)
    • -blood vessels, airways of lungs, stomach and intestines
    • Nonstriated
    • usually invoulantary control
    • myogenic - with autonomic nervous system innervation
    • Ca++ from ECF
  27. Cardiac Muscle Tissue
    • Have striations
    • Involuntary movement or contraction is not consciously controlled
    • intercalated disc unique to cardias muscle tissue w/high densities of desmosomes & gap junctions
    • myogenic w/ autonomic nervous system innervation
    • Ca++ from ECF and sarcoplasmic reticulum
  28. Autorhythmic fibers (1%) = pacemaker cells
    • Conduction system
    • -sinoatrial (SA) node
    • -Atrioventricular (AV) node
    • -Atrioventricular (AV) bundle (Bundle of His)
    • -w/ right and left bundle branches
    • -Purkinje fibers
  29. Contractile fibers (99%)
    • the workhorse cells-no pacemaker potential
    • action potential with plateau due to membrane Ca++&K+ channels opening at the same time
    • depolarization lasts approximately as long as contraction
    • refractory period basically negates possibility for summation
  30. Electrocardiogram (ECG)
    • record of electrical changes
    • -P wave
    • -QRS wave
    • -T wave
    • -P-Q interval, S-T segment, Q-T interval
  31. ***P wave***
    ATRIAL DEPOLARIZATION
  32. *** QRS complex***
    • VENTRICULAR DEPOLARIZATION
    • covers atrial repolarization-can be uncovered
  33. ***T-wave***
    VENTRICULAR REPOLARIZATION
  34. P-Q interval
    time between start of atrial and ventricular excitation (depolarization)
  35. S-T segment
    the time of ventricular depolarization
  36. Q-T interval
    from the beginning fo ventricular depolarization to the end of ventricular repolarization
  37. Systole
  38. Diastole
  39. End diastolic volume (EDV)
  40. End systolic volume (ESV)
  41. Stroke Volume (SV)
    SV= EDV - ESV
  42. isovolumetric contraction
  43. isovolumetric relaxation
  44. Dicrotic wave
  45. Heart sounds
    "heart beat"- Lubb & Dupp

    • Heart murmurs
    • -stenotic valves or incompetant valves

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