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  1. Extracelluar compartment
    all the sutff outside of the cell
  2. intra cellular compartment
    all the stuff inside of the cell
  3. The extracellular compartment is composed of what two things?
    • 1. plasma
    • 2. interstitial fluid
  4. Plasma
    The liquid of the blood
  5. Interstitial Fluid
    fluid around cells inside of tissue
  6. Diffusion
    random molecular motion
  7. Net diffusion
    the movement from high concentration to low concentration. Involves a gradient
  8. What types of substances can diffuse across the plasma membrane
    • 1. Hydrophobic, small non-polar molecules (O2, N2, steriods)
    • 2. small neutral molecules with polar covalent bonds (CO2, Ethanol, Urea)
    • 3. Water thru aquaporins
  9. Osmosis
    net diffusion across a semipermable membrane
  10. What type of molecules use osmosis?
    polar such as glucose, sucrose
  11. Permease
    carrier proteins used by large molecules to cross a membrane
  12. Lignand Binding site
    very specific binding site used by carrier to cross membrance
  13. Facillitated Diffusion
    use carrier proteins to cross membrane
  14. Channel Proteins
    ions use to diffuse thru PM; very specific
  15. What are the three forms of channels?
    mechnical gated and ligand gated
  16. Mechanical gated
    physical force required to open
  17. Ligand gated
    ligand must bind to the binding site for gate to open
  18. Voltage gated
    Electrical stimulus open and close gate
  19. What is Fick's law
    rate of diffusion= (temp* surface area*change in concentration)/molecular weight*distance
  20. What are the two conditions of osmosis?
    • 1. Must have a concentration gradient
    • 2. Membrane relatively impermable to the solute
  21. Osmostically Active
    solutes cannot pass thru the plasma membrane
  22. Osmotic Pressure
    A hydrostatic pressure caused by a difference in the amounts of solutes between solutions that are separated by a semi-permeable membrane.

  23. Isoosmolal
    two solutions with the same osmolality
  24. hyperosmolal
    osmolality of one solutions is greater than the other
  25. What are the two definitions of tonicity?
    • 1. effect of the solution on osmotic movement of H2O
    • 2. how a solution effects the tone of a cell (flaccid or turgid)
  26. Isotonic
    Same concentration of solute inside and outside of a cell
  27. HypOtonic
    Lower concentration on solutes outside of the cell than inside
  28. HypERtonic
    Lower concentration of solute inside the cell than ouside.
  29. What are the two charactersitics for facilitated diffusion?
    • 1. Specificity-"lock and key" ligand binding site
    • 2. Saturation- rate of diffusion increases until all of the carrier proteins are active. Once all are active increase in ligands has NO effect on rate
  30. Active transport
    requires ATP directly or indirectly because of transport against the gradient.
  31. What are the two types of active transport?
    • 1. Primary- requires direct energy
    • 2. Secondary- indirectly use energy
  32. How do primary transport work?
    Use carrier protein with a ligand binding site. ATP binds and is hydrolyzed to ADP+Pi. Pi "P" the carrier protein so that their is a change in conformation. This cause the ligand to be transferred into the cell. The releasing of Pi cause protein to go back to orginal conformation
  33. What is an important carrier protein pump?
    Na+ / K+ pump
  34. Symport
    secondary coupled transport in the same direction
  35. Antiport
    secondary coupled transport in opposite directions
  36. Describe Secondary Transport
    requires a membrane potential created with a primary AT pump (Na/K/H). involves the movement of something downhill with something uphill.
  37. Epithelium
    Layer of cells that covers the body surface; on the inner surface of body cavitie;s and lining of hollow organs
  38. Endothelium
    Epithelium the lines the capillaries, arteries, and veins.
  39. Absorption
    movement across the epithelium
  40. Reabsorption
    movement twice across the epithelium.
  41. Transcellular transport
    substance goes thru cells (very specific)
  42. Paracellular transport
    movement of substances between cells. (not very specific)
  43. How is paracellular transport blocked
    junctional complexes which remove space from between cells (desmosomes, tight junctions, and adherens junctions)
  44. Exocytosis
    Substances packaged in vesicles to be moved out of a cell
  45. Endocytosis
    substance packaged on the plasma memebrane to form vesicles to move substance in.
  46. Receptor mediated endocytosis
    more specifc. membrane doesn't fold in unitl certain receptor bind
  47. Membrane Potential
    the charge across the plasma membrane. inside is more negative than outside
  48. What is the membrane potential necessary for
    action and graded potentials
  49. What contributes to a cells membrane potential?
    Na/K pumps and other fixed ions in the cell
  50. Equilibrium potential
    charge that you get across the membrane, if is is only permable to one ion
  51. What is most important for equilibrium potential?
    concentration gradient
  52. What is the Nernst equation used for?
    determining equilibium potential
  53. Resting membrane potential
    potential across the pm in a normal situation (i.e when it is not condicuting an impluse.
  54. What two things does resting potentail depend on?
    • 1. concentration gradient
    • 2. permability to that ion
  55. What are the two types of local signaling?
    • 1.paracrine
    • 2. synaptic
  56. What are the two types of cell signaling
    • 1. local
    • 2. long distance
  57. Paracrine signaling
    organ release a paracrine factor that acts on a cell in the same organ
  58. Synaptic signaling
    involves neurons the synapt with another cell either another neuron of an effector cell
  59. Endocrine signaling
    glands release a hormone into the blood stream to transport to a target organ
  60. What three place are endocrine receptors located
    cytoplams, nucleus, and pm
  61. The central nervous system is composed of?
    brain and spinal cord
  62. The peripherial ns is composed of?
    cranial and spinal nerves and their branches
  63. Neurons
    functional unit; generates electorchemical impulses (action of graded potentials);specialized
  64. Neuroglia
    support neurons b maintianing the proper environment
  65. Nissil bodies
    concentration of RERs in the nucleus of a neuron
  66. Dendrites
    provide receptive area which generates graded potentials
  67. The dendrites and _____ generate graded potentials?
    plasma membrane
  68. Axons
    conduct action potentials
  69. Axonal hillock
    generated action potentials
  70. Teledendria
    branches at the the end of an axon
  71. What are the two ways for neurotransmitter to get to teledendria?
    • 1. axoplasmic flow
    • 2. axonal transport
  72. Axonal transport
    faster more specific; can either be orthograde or retrograde; use motor protein to transport vesicle down a microtubule
  73. Axoplasmic flow
    movement in one direction very slow and non-specific
  74. What are the two ways to classify neurons?
    function and stucture
  75. White matter
    mostly axons with myelin sheaths
  76. Grey matter
    cell body neurons and dendrites
  77. Ganglion
    groupings of neuron cell bodies in the PNS
  78. Where do motor neurons have there cell bodies?
    in the grey matter of the CNS
  79. Sensory Neurons (afferent)
    carry sensory info towars CNS
  80. Associate neurons (interneuron)
    synapes with sensory and motor neurons
  81. What are the four fn neuron types of the PNS?
    somatic sensory/motor, viseral sensory/motor
  82. Where do Somatic and Viseral sensory neurons have their cell bodies?
    in dorsal root ganglion
  83. Where do Somatic and Viseral motor neurons have their cell bodies?
    in grey matter
  84. What are the two ways too synapse?
    electrical or chemical
  85. Axodendritic
    presynaptic neuron synapes on dendrite of post synaptic neuron
  86. Axosomatic
    presynaptic neuron synapes on cell body of post synaptic neuron
  87. Axoaxonic
    presynaptic neuron synapes on axon of post synaptic neuron
  88. Electrical synapse
    involves gap junctions wich are made out of connexin proteins
  89. Connexin Protein
    what gap junctions are made of
  90. Chemical synapse
    The first cell is always a neuron which synape with an effector
  91. Describe the process of release NT.
    An action potential move down the axon to the terminal bouton where Ca volataged gated channels are located. The Channels open and Ca flows in to bind with Synaptotagmin to form a complex. This complex act on the SNARE fusion complex which triggers exocytosis of the NT vesicles.
  92. What kind of ion channels are located on the post-synaptic cell?
    chemically gated
  93. What are the two ways that a chemical gated ion channel on the post-synaptic cell can be opened/closed?
    either by the direct binding of the ligand to the receptor or by the receptor acting as a 2nd messenger(G-protein).
  94. When ions flow into the post-syn cell how do they change the membrane potential?
    by generating a graded potential
  95. What are the two types of graded potentials?
    • EPSP-excitatory post-syn potential
    • IPSP-inhibitory " "
  96. Ionotropic
    contains ion channels
  97. Metabotropic
    use signal transduction pathway and 2nd messenger
  98. Ach acts on what receptors
  99. What are the two types of cholinergic receptors?
    nicotinic and muscarnic
  100. Nicotinc generates what
  101. Muscarnic generates what
    both IPSP and EPSP
  102. Nictonic are which tropic
  103. Muscarinic are which tropic
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test 1
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