A&P I

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anhemp05
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98896
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A&P I
Updated:
2011-08-30 09:19:56
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test 1
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  1. What are the structural unit of all living things?
    Cells
  2. Name the concepts of cell theory
    • 1. The cell is the smallest structural and functional living unit
    • 2. Organismal function depends on individual and collective cell function
    • 3. Biochemical activities of cells are dictated by their specific cell structure
    • 4. cells make cells
  3. List the three major regions of a generalized cell and indicate the function of each
    • 1. Plasma Membrane- flexible outer boundary
    • 2. Cytoplasm- intracellular fluid containing organelles
    • 3. nucleus- control center
  4. What the components of the plasma membrane and what are their functions?
    • 1. phosolipids- forms bilayer
    • 2. cholesterol- increased membrane stability/fluidity
    • 3. glycolipids- lipids with polar sugar groups
    • 4. proteins- reconfiguring the DNA
    • i. integral- conpletely span membrane
    • ii. peripheral- loosely attached to integral proteins
  5. Can all substances cross the cell membrane without assistance?
    No, depends on whether it needs energy to move across the membrane. Semi-permeable
  6. Passive transport
    • use energy? No
    • which direction do the substances move? with concentration gradient
    • types:
    • 1. simple diffusion- higher to lower
    • slower movement of molecules
    • 2 carrier mediated facilitated diffusion= changes shape
    • 3. channel mediated facilitated diffusion- forms pores
    • 4. osmosis- water movement
  7. Active Transport
    • Use energy? Yes
    • which direction do the substances move against concentration gradient
    • 1. Active
    • i. solution pumps
    • ii. move solute against barrier
    • 2. Vesticular
    • i. exocytosis- out of cell
    • ii. endocytosis- into cell
    • iii. transcytosis- move in across and out of cell
    • iv. substance trafficking- transport from one area or organelle in one cell to another
  8. hypertonic
    what type of molecule crosses the cell membrane and why?

    higher concentration of non-penetrating
  9. hypertonic
    which direction do these molecules move?
    Out of cells
  10. hypertonic
    what would a cell in such a solution do?
    Shrink, high water
  11. HYPOtonic
    what type of molecule crosses the cell membrane and why?
    lower concentrated of nonpenetrated
  12. HYPOtonic
    which direction do these molecules move?
    into cells
  13. HYPOtonic
    what would a cell in such a solution do?
    Pump up (Swell)
  14. Isotonic-
    what type of molecule crosses the cell membrane (if any) and why?
    solutions with same concentration of nonpenetrating
  15. Isotonic
    which direction do these molecules move?
    balanced
  16. Isotonic
    what would a cell in such a solution do?
    keeps its shape
  17. Mitochondria
    • powerhouse/ site if ATP synthesis
    • Membrane-bound
  18. Ribosomes
    • most numerous
    • composed of rRNA and protein
    • Site of protein synthesis
    • NOT membrane bound
  19. Endoplasmic Reticulum - membrane bound
    i. rough
    ii. smooth
    • i. ribosomes, protein synthesis
    • ii. breakdown glycogen in liver
    • detoxify drugs
  20. Peroxisomes-
    sacs containing powerful oxidasses and catalases- neutralizes dangerous and free radicals
  21. lysosomes- Membrane bound
    sacs of digestive enzymes
  22. Centioles- NOT membrane bound
    moves around DNA
  23. Cellular extensions


    I. Cilia
    II. Flagella
    • I. moves across cell surface- wave like motion
    • II. Flagella- propel whole cells (sperm)
    • whip like structure
  24. Nuclear Envelope
    double membrane containing pores
  25. nucleolus-
    involved in rRNA synthesis
  26. Chromatin
    DNA of cell, threaklike loosely coiled RNA
  27. Interphase-
    • i. G1(Gap 1) vigourous growth and metabolism
    • ii. S-DNA replication
    • iii. G2- prep for division
  28. Mitotic-
    • i. early prophase- formation of chromosomes
    • ii. late prophase- spindles attaching to chromosomes
    • iii. metaphase- chromosomes align in middle
    • iv. anaphase- chromosomes split
    • v. telephase reverse prophase
  29. What is the point/result of mitosis?
    DNA chromosome replication
  30. What is DNA replication?
    Cell formations
  31. What is the purpose of DNA replication?
    create new cells
  32. In DNA replication which base pairs together?
    • A-T
    • C-G
  33. What is a gene?
    Segment of DNA
  34. What is the function of a gene?
    blueprint of polypeptide chain
  35. What is the genetic code for DNA?
    Amino Acids for DNA
  36. Name the two phases of protein synthesis
    • 1st phase- Transcription
    • location in cell- nucleus
    • DNA to mRNA

    • 2nd Phase- Translation
    • location- plasma membrane
    • mRNA to tRNA
    • mRNA- carries instructions
    • tRNA- binds amino acids
  37. What dose cell differentiation mean?
    Determining cell functions
  38. What is another term you could use for differentiation?
    specialization

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