BIOL380 Week 1
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List the Hierarchy of Life.
- Organ Systems
A well-supported hypothesis.
What are the two components to the Cell Theory?
- 1. All living things are comprised of a cell or multiple cells.
- 2. All cells come from pre-existing cells.
What is the basic unit of life?
Which of the following is RIGID? Plasma Membrane or Cell Wall?
Which of the following is flexible? Plasma Membrane or Cell Wall?
List characteristics COMMON to ALL Cells.
- 1. Boundary
- 2. Genetic Material
- 3. Energy Use
- 4. Metabolic Reactions
What are the three types of Energy Using Cells?
Organotrophs get their energy from what?
Organotrophs get their energy from other living organisms.
Phototrophs get their energy from what?
Phototrophs get their energy from sunlight.
Lithotrophs get their energy from what?
They get their energy from inorganic molecules.
What are the two major cell types?
What are the differences between Prokaryotes & Eukaryotes?
- Eukaryotes are larger.
- Eukaryotes have a nucleus and organelles.
- Prokaryotes have neither of the two.
What can Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes have in common?
They both could have Cell Walls.
What is the Cytoplasm?
It is the water/fluid environment inside the cell.
What is the Nucleus?
A double-membrane bound organelle that contains the DNA.
What is the Nucleolus?
It is a region located inside the Nucleus that is responsible for synthesizing Ribosome Components.
What are Ribosomes?
- Ribosomes are made up of Protein & RNA.
- They contain two subunits - 30/40S & 50/60S.
- Ribosomes are responsible for Protein Synthesis via Translation.
What is the RER?
- Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum.
- It has a convoluted single membrane.
- It is responsible for making Secretory Proteins.
Why is the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum called Rough?
Because it has many Ribosomes attatched to the surface of its membrane giving it a bumpy/rough appearance.
What is the SER?
- Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum.
- It has a convoluted single membrane but DOES NOT contain Ribosomes.
What are the possible functions of the SER?
- Making Membranes (Phospholipids)
- Carbohydrate Metabolism
- Storage of Ions (Ca2+)
Because the SER and RER are connected via membranes to the Nucleus, how is this advantageous in regards to the SER?
It's advantageous in that you can have easy regulation of the nuclear membrane because one of the SER's functions is to make phosopholipids (membranes).
Describe the Golgi's appearance.
Stacks of single membrane that may be connected to each other.
What are Vesicles?
They are tiny bubbles that can be found on either end of the Golgi or off the middle.
What is the Golgi's function?
- It receives Secretory Proteins from the RER.
- It modifies Proteins.
- Gets proteins to corect destination.
Why would the Golgi have to modify the proteins it receives from the RER?
In case there's an error in the RER where it sends an inactive protein to the Golgi, the Golgi can modify the protein making it active.
What are the two sides of the Golgi called?
Cis & Trans
Describe the structure of the Mitochondrion.
- Has an oval-shaped Outer Membrane.
- Has a convoluted Inner Membrane.
- The space inside the inner membrane is called the Matrix.
- The space between the Outer and Inner Membrane is called the Intermembrane Space.
What is the function of the Mitochondria?
Makes energy in the form of Adenosine Triphosphate.
How is ATP produced in the Mitochondria?
What are the similarities between Chloroplasts and Mitochondria?
- There are many of them in their respective cells.
- They both have double membranes.
- They both make energy.
What are the two regions within the Chloroplast called?
Storma & Thylakoid
What is found in the Thylakoid?
Stacks of Thylakoid Membrane
What are the stacks of Thylakoid Membrane called?
What is the function of the Chloroplast?
To make energy IN THE FORM of Sugar/Carbohydrates
How many layers does the Lysosome have?
How many Lysosomes do cells typically have?
What is the function of the Lysosome?
- Contains enzymes
- Altered pH
- Degrades biological molecules
What kind of biological molecules do Lysosomes degrade?
The ones that don't belong in the cell
How many layers does the Peroxisome have?
What is the function of the Peroxisome?
Degradation via Oxidation
What is Oxidation?
The addtion of oxygen to molecules.
What is the result of degrading via oxidation?
H202 (Hydrogen Peroxide)
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