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What is growth?
An increase in body size or changes in body cell structure, function, and complexity.
What is development?
an orderly pattern of changes in structure, thoughts, feelings, or behaviors resulting from maturation, experiences, and learning.
What is the difference between growth and development?
Development occurs throughout life, but some people do not experience the same development.
Infants who are malnourished in utero develop what?
Fewer brain cells than infants who have had adequate prenatal nutrition.
Four major componets of Frued's theory are?
- *unconscious mind
- *the id
- *the ego
- *the superego
Substance abuse by a pregnant woman increases the risk of?
congenital anomalies, low birthweight, and prematurity in the developing fetus
Abuse of alcohol and drugs is more prevalent in?
teenagers who have poor family relationships, low self-esteem, and poor social skills
Freud's oral stage?
0 to 18 months
use of mouth as the major source of gratification and exploration
Freud's Anal Stage?
- *8 months to 4 years
- *Development of neuromuscular control and gratification from toilet training
Frued's phallic stage?
- *3 to 7 years
- * increase interest in gender differences
Frued's Latency Stage
- *7 to 12 years
- *Increasing sex-role id with the parent of same sex
Frued's Genital Stage?
- *12 to 20 years
- *Sexual interest expressed in sexual relationships
- *Sexual pressures and conflict
Piaget's Sensorimotor Stage?
- *birth to 24 months
- *From basic reflexes to development in coordination and reasoning
Piaget's Preoperational Stage
- *2 to 7 years
- *using symbols through language skills and pictures
Piaget's Concrete Operational Stage
- *Age 7 to 11 years
- * Learn by manipulating objects and logical thinking is developed
Piaget's Formal Operational Stage?
- *11 years+
- *Abstract thinking and Deductive Reasoning
Erikson's trust vs mistrust?
*infant relies on caregivers to meet basic meets and provide safety
Erikson's autonomy vs shame and doubt
- *age one to three
- *gaining independence as motor and language skills develop
- *if parents are too protective, shame and doubt may occur in child
Erikson's initiative vs guilt?
- * 4 to 6 years
- *Taking initiative to learn and seek out
- *Restrictions may create hesitations within the child
Erikson's industry vs inferiority?
- *School-Aged Children
- *Accomplishing and Receiving Recognition
- *If not accepted by peers or parents, feeling of inferiority and lack of self-worth might develop
Erikson's id vs role confusion?
- *New Roles
- *Role confusion when child is unable to establish identity
Erikson's intimacy vs isolation?
- *Young Adulthood
- *Unite self identity with identities of friends, make commitments
- *Fear creates isolation
Erikson's generativity vs stagnation?
- *Middle Adulthood
- *Contribution to world and community
- *If not, person becomes self-absorbed and obsessed with personal needs or regresses to earlier level
Erikson's Ego integrity vs despair?
- *later adulthood
- *Despair occurs when one's life has been full of failures
Havighurst's theory was based on what?
that living and growing are based on learning in developmental tasks
Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development was based on?
a person's moral development is influenced by culutral effects on one's perceptions of justice in interpersonal relationships
Koholberg's preconventional level?
- based on external control
- punishments and rewards
Kohlberg's conventional level?
- *identifying with significant others and conforming to expectations
- *respects values and ideals of family and friends
Kohlberg's postconvential level?
- *involves moral judgment that is rational
- *correct behavior is defined in terms of society's laws
James Fowler theory was based on what?
learning that occurs as a result of the internal organization of an even
What is assimilation?
the process of integrating new experinece into existing schemata
What is accomodation?
An alteration of existing thought processes to manage more complex information