Carbs 2

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Carbs 2
2011-08-29 22:47:38

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  1. What steps in glycolysis yield ATP
    1, 3 biphosphoglycerol --> 3 phosphoglycerate via phosphoglycerate kinase

    phosphoenolpyruvate --> pyruvate via pyruvate kinase
  2. Role of Fructose 2,3 bisphosphate
    To increase glycolysis (activates PFK1)
  3. Role of insulin in glycolysis
    To increase glycolysis by activating hexokinase, PFK1 (via breaking down cAMP), and pyruvate kinase
  4. How is NADH reduced in presence of oxygen?
    Through OAA reduced to malate, which can go to crebs cylcle, generate 3 ATP

    Through DHAP reduced to glycerol 3 phosphate, which can donate electrons in inner membrane to FAD, produces 2 APT
  5. What is the cori cycle?
    Pyruvate reduced to lactate, transported to liver, oxidesed to pyruvate, used in gluconeogenisis
  6. How is fructose broken down?
    • In liver:
    • fructose kinase -->fructose 6 phosphate
    • aldotase 2 --> DHAP + glyceraldehyde

    glyceraldehyde needs a phosphate to be converted to glyceraldyhyde 3 phosephate
  7. Inhibitors of PFK1
    Glucagon, citrate, ATP
  8. Activators of PFK1
    Insulin, ADP, AMP, 2,3 fructobisphosphate
  9. How is OAA transproted back to cytosol?
    Gets aminated to asparatate. Asparatate goes through membrane, then gets deaminated back to OAA
  10. Pyruvate kinase deficiency
    Deprives RBC of ATP -->hemolytic b/c membrane potential cannot be maintained
  11. What step yields NADH?
    glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate --> 1, 3 phosphoglycerate via glyceraldehyde phosphate dehodrogenase
  12. Which steps require energy input?
    Hexokinase and PFK1