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What steps in glycolysis yield ATP
1, 3 biphosphoglycerol --> 3 phosphoglycerate via phosphoglycerate kinase
phosphoenolpyruvate --> pyruvate via pyruvate kinase
Role of Fructose 2,3 bisphosphate
To increase glycolysis (activates PFK1)
Role of insulin in glycolysis
To increase glycolysis by activating hexokinase, PFK1 (via breaking down cAMP), and pyruvate kinase
How is NADH reduced in presence of oxygen?
Through OAA reduced to malate, which can go to crebs cylcle, generate 3 ATP
Through DHAP reduced to glycerol 3 phosphate, which can donate electrons in inner membrane to FAD, produces 2 APT
What is the cori cycle?
Pyruvate reduced to lactate, transported to liver, oxidesed to pyruvate, used in gluconeogenisis
How is fructose broken down?
- In liver:
- fructose kinase -->fructose 6 phosphate
- aldotase 2 --> DHAP + glyceraldehyde
glyceraldehyde needs a phosphate to be converted to glyceraldyhyde 3 phosephate
Inhibitors of PFK1
Glucagon, citrate, ATP
Activators of PFK1
Insulin, ADP, AMP, 2,3 fructobisphosphate
How is OAA transproted back to cytosol?
Gets aminated to asparatate. Asparatate goes through membrane, then gets deaminated back to OAA
Pyruvate kinase deficiency
Deprives RBC of ATP -->hemolytic b/c membrane potential cannot be maintained
What step yields NADH?
glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate --> 1, 3 phosphoglycerate via glyceraldehyde phosphate dehodrogenase
Which steps require energy input?
Hexokinase and PFK1