A&P 2: Midterm 1

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A&P 2: Midterm 1
2011-09-27 01:24:45

A&P 2: Midterm 1
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  1. Chemical messengers
    secreted into blood stream which stimulate cells in tissue or other organ
  2. Releases into a tube
    ex: production of egg, sperm etc
    Exocrine system
  3. Hormone released into capillary bed/structure picked up by blood and transferred throughout body
    Endocrine system
  4. Releases by an intracellular effect
    Endocrine hormone
  5. There is no master control center with the
    Endocrine system
  6. Hypothalamus secrets 9 hormones:
    TRH, CRH, GNRH, PRH, GHRH, PIH, Somatostatin, ADH & Oxytocin
  7. Tropin hormones=
    Releasing hormones
  8. 5 tropin hormones:
  9. ADH and Oxytocin are stored in the
    Posterior Pituitary
  10. FSH, LH, TSH, ACTH, PRL, GH are stored in the
    Anterior Pituitary
  11. FSH and LH are referred to as
  12. stimulates milk production increases during pregnancy, but will not go into effect until after delivery
  13. -Referred to as somatotropin.
    -About a thousand times more of this hormone is release than any other hormone.
    -Promotes widespread tissue growth, and bones, muscle
    & cartilage. Is a tropic hormone stimulates the liver to IGF (Insulin-likegrowth factors)
    Growth Hormone
  14. Produce similar to Growth Hormone like muscle, bone and cartilage development.
    IGF1 & IGF2
  15. Difference between IGF and Growth Hormone:
    GH has a shorter half life about 6-20mins. IGF is about 20 hours
  16. -Stimulates protein synthesis, enhances amino acids transport into cells, which turns on the DNA (mRNA: takes code from DNA to produce protein molecules)
    -Also suppresses protein catabolism (breakdown), causes lipid cells to catabolize (fat breakdown). -Causes carbohydrate metabolism to spare glucose and use the lipids for energy.
    -Promotes electrolyte balance & promotes kidney retention of sodium and calcium. -Enhances calcium absorption of small intestines. Mostly during growth years in children
    GH & IGF
  17. Bone growing outward, becoming denser
    Appositional growth
  18. Prevent dehydration
    ADH Antidiuretic hormone
  19. ADH also referred to as
    Vasopressin (referring to blood vessels, which cause vasoconstriction.)
  20. Binds to thyroid which makes T3, T4 circulates after getting into blood and stimulates everywhere creating energy. T3, T4 stop release of TSH and TRH (negative feedback)
    Thyroid Stimulating hormone
  21. Located in the cranial area releases two hormones
    Pineal Gland
  22. 2 hormones release by the Pineal Gland
    Melatonin (by night/sleep) and Serotonin (by day/happy)
  23. Nutrients needed to make the Thyroid work
    Tryptophan, Melatonin, Tyrosine, Serotonin
  24. kicking up metabolism, decreased energy, weight gain, weak nails, hair loss are all symptoms of:
  25. Part of immune system & produces: thymoiphintine & thymocin, t-cell development
  26. Triiodothyronine
  27. Thyroxine or Tetra
  28. Tri or Tetra is determined by how many (T3, T4)
    Tyrosine molecules are attached
  29. is an amino acid, same one that is used for serotonin
  30. Thyroid needs:
    Tyrosine & Iodine
  31. Thyroid produces:
    T3, T4 and calcitonin
  32. is secreted when blood calcium is too high, causing the calcium to go back to bones
  33. Accelerates catabolism of fats, proteins, and carbs. Also helps with alertness, stimulates production of growth hormone and regulates blood cholesterol levels.
    T3, T4
  34. Raw materials for glands are
    Tyrosine & Iodine
  35. Toxicins in the body
    Chlorine, fluoride and estrogen
  36. -Activates vitamin d
    -Promotes intestinal calcium absorption, and inhibits urinary secretion. (Just
    opposite of calcitonin)
    -Also promotes phosphate & calcium excretion
    Parathyroid hormone
  37. 4 parts to adrenal glands:
    • 1. adrenal medulla
    • 2. zona reticularis
    • 3. zona fasciculate
    • 4. zona glomerulosa
  38. What is part of the sympathetic nervous system, contains nerves, neurons, secrets epinephrine
    (adrenaline) and norepinephrine which usually last about a half an hour causing increase blood pressure, heart rate, lung air flow.
    Adrenal medulla
  39. cause breakdown of glycogen into glucose for use of energy which is referred to as:
  40. making glucose out of amino acids and fat:
  41. inhabits insulin secretion (make our muscles able to react quickly-Fight or Flight)
  42. Aldosterone actions on kidney to control electrolyte balance/sodium retention and cause potassium secretion.
    (sodium and potassium are going to opposite way)
    Zona glomurulosa
  43. Produces cortisol & corticosterone.
    Stimulate fat and protein catabolism and help
    with the repair of damaged tissues.
    Zona fasciculata
  44. Help with repair of damaged tissues
    Long term starts causing belly fat which might cause insulin resistance.
  45. produces sex steroids estrogen, progesterone & testosterone (which is insignificant in women because ovaries are producing estrogen in women until after menopause, but only place produced in men.) Produces molecule called DHEA --> converted to testosterone which is insignificant in younger men because it is produced in the testis but only place produced in women helps maintain muscle mass & responsible for sex drive
    Zona reticularis
  46. where sodium goes....
    water follows
  47. ___________is important after menopause to help
    with bone density
  48. What organ is both and Exocrine and Endocrine System
    • Pancreas
    • Gonads
  49. Enzyme that digests carbohydrates
  50. enzyme that digest protein
  51. Enzyme that digest fats
  52. Lipase, Protase, and Analyase are all digested into the ________
    Small intestines
  53. Islets of Langerhans secretes 4 hormones
    • 1. Insulin
    • 2. Glucagon
    • 3. Somatostatin
    • 4. Pancreatic polypeptide
  54. secreted by beta cells, when to much glucose and amino acids activates the pancreas.
    High glucose stimulates muscle, adipose tissue, liver to storeglucose into glycogen
  55. 4 organs that do not depend on insulin
    • Kidneys
    • Brain
    • Liver
    • Red blood cells
  56. release by the alpha cells when the blood glucose levels fall
    stimulates glycogenolysis **glycogen releases glucose back into the system
  57. Slows digestion down
  58. Secreted by the f-cells
    effects absorption in the small intestines (slows it
    down as well)
    Pancreatic polypeptide
  59. maintain electrolyte balance which is secreted by Adrenal Gland
  60. released by blood
  61. cause vasoconstrict & aldosterone constriction
    Angiotensin I & II
  62. produces the other 85% of the erythropoietin
  63. produces 15% of Erythropoietin
  64. secreted by stomach mucosa: sensation of hunger
  65. released by stomach fat cells which causes insulin resistance
  66. regulates how much serotonin is in the body
    Monoamine oxidase inhibitor
  67. chronic polyuria/a lot of urine, not sugar in urineà hyposecreation ADH
    Diabetes Incipitus
  68. attacks thyroid gland disease
    Hashimoto's disease
  69. hyper-secretion of GH (enlarged features eg. Andre the Giant)
  70. chronic hypothyroidism
  71. any pathological enlargement of thyroid gland (caused by iodine deficiency)
  72. releases excessive amount of PTH
  73. excess cortisol secretion (released when stress)
    effects abnormal fat deposition inbetween shoulder blades and causes “moon face”
    Cushing disease
  74. inaction of insulin or hyposecreation 3 polys: polyurea (frequent urination, polydipsia (thrist), polyphasia (hunger)
    Diabetes Mellitus
  75. only 10% of this applies to Diabetes Mellitus
    Type 1: IDDM: Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
  76. insulin resistant, fat cells(belly fat) resistance, deficiency of chromium and binadium
    • Type 2: NIDDM Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes
    • Mellitus
  77. If diabetic has acid called ketone build-up in blood & urine
    • Ketoacidosis
    • Ex. Kussamaul breathing
  78. Blood can do several things name a few:
    • 1. Transport Nutrients
    • 2. Rid of waste
    • 3. Cellular Respiration (oxygen)
    • 4. Immunity
    • 5. Regulates pH
    • 6. Thermoregulation
  79. Two main components of blood
    • Plasma
    • Formed elements
  80. clear extra cellular fluid with electrolytes & clotting proteins
  81. Plasma without clotting proteins
  82. referring to platelets, erythrocytes (RBC), Leukocytes (WBC)
    Formed elements
  83. % of red blood cells to the total volume of blood
  84. _______ is about 45% of RBC
    Normal Hematocrit
  85. represents the white blood cells & platelets
    Buffy coat
  86. represents about 55% of total blood
  87. -thickness or resistance of fluid to flow due to cohesive factors
    -always compared to water
  88. Normal rate of blood viscosity is
  89. Viscosity affects _______
  90. total molarity of disolved particles in the blood
    Blood Osmolarity
  91. Too high osmotic pressure in the blood will _____
    increase BP
  92. Too low osmotic pressure in the blood will _____
    Decrease BP
  93. 3 contributing factors to osmolarity are:
    • 1. Proteins
    • 2. RBC
    • 3. Sodium
  94. contribution to the protein molecules through the blood
    Colloid osmotic pressure
  95. Types of protein molecules (serve as transport for molecules through the body
    • Albumins
    • Globulins (Alpha, Beta, Gamma)
  96. fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity due to lack of protein in the blood
  97. 3 Types of Gases in the blood
    • Oxygen
    • CO2
    • Nitrogen (from DNA)
  98. Nutrients needed in the blood
    • Oxygen
    • Water
    • Glucose
    • Amino Aicds
    • Phospholipids
    • Cholesterol
    • Electrolytes
    • Sodium
  99. _____ accounts for blood osmolarity more than anything else
  100. ______ regulate _____ level in the blood
    • Kidneys
    • Sodium
  101. Tissues that produce blood
    Hemopoietic tissue
  102. production of formed elements
  103. production of formed elements in red bone marrow
    Myeloid hemopoiesis
  104. Process of making formed elements is started in _______
    Red bone marrow
  105. Stem cells that make the formed elements ____
  106. _______ on the Hemocytoblasts cause communication
    Surface receptors
  107. Area in body that monitor % of RBC ______ & ______ because of the production of erythropoietin
    • Liver
    • Kidney
  108. production of red blood cells
  109. Nutrients needed for red blood cells include:
    • Iron
    • Folic Acid
    • B12
    • Vitamin C
    • Copper
  110. Transports oxygen (carries 4 oxygen molecules because of iron)
  111. Made int the stomach & to get into blood iron binds to _____
  112. Protein that in the blood binds to iron and transports it through the body
  113. Formation of WBC
  114. WBC go to what gland ______ to mature
  115. Platelet production
  116. Committed cell that is eventually going to become a platelet
  117. giant cell because DNA replicates numerous times in the same cell
  118. Exploded or fragmented Megakaryocytes become
    functional platelets
  119. 1/3 of platelets are stored in what organ?
  120. _______ main function include picking up O2 and deliver it to tissues, pick up CO2 from the tissues and take it back to the lungs.
  121. Erythrocytes lack _____ therefore, they are incapable of cellular respiration. RBC would then use ______ for energy
    • mitochondria
    • anaerobic fermentation
  122. Cytoplasm of the RBC has 2 main components
    • Carbonic anhydrase
    • Hemogolbin
  123. Cytoplasm of RBC enzyme called _____ ______ keeps pH in the blood balanced (pH7.35)
    Carbonic anhydrase
  124. 1/3 of the cytoplasm is _______ which is composed of four protein chains which have a heme attached
  125. Heme protino can vind to oxygen and carry 4 ______
  126. Normal amount of RBC in a man ______ and normal aount of RBC in a woman _______.
    • M:4.6-6.2 million
    • W: 4.2-5.4 million
  127. RBC are recycled in what organ?
  128. High RBC count
  129. Low RBC count
  130. Marker Rh factor if it has a marker then it is a _____
    • Positive
    • Ex. AB+
  131. Mother is Rh- and baby is Rh+
    Erythroblastosis Fetalis
  132. Type __ _______ can be given to anybody
    O negative
  133. Type __ ___ _______ can receive blood from anyone
    AB positive
  134. If WBC cout is too low (below 5 thousand) it is referred to as _____
  135. If WBC count is too high (above 10 thousand) it is referred to as ______
  136. 5 Types of Leukocytes
    • Neutrophils
    • Lymphocytes
    • Monocytes
    • Eocinophils
    • Basophils
  137. _____
  138. 70% of WBC, if there is an increase generally means bacterial infection
  139. 25% of WBC, if there is and increase generally means viral infection or cancer
  140. 8% of WBC, increase generally means viral, fungal or chronic infection
  141. 2-4% of WBC, generally increase means parasitic infection or allergies
  142. 1% of WBC, increase generally means allergies, chicken pox, and diabetes mellitus
  143. _____ have clotting factors, and plug if injured which will attract WBC to area of injury.
  144. stopping the bleeding and invole 30 different chemical reactions to form clot
  145. _______ present in plasma is a heparin which is secreted by ______ & _____ _______
    • Angicoagulat
    • Basophils
    • Mast Cells
  146. Causes for poor clotting might include:
    • Liver Disease
    • Vitamin K deficiency
    • Gall Stones
    • Bowel flora is compromised
    • Blood is too thin
  147. _______ abnormal clotting of the blood
  148. When a piece of clot gets trapped it is called _______
  149. Tissue death is ______
  150. ______ can be caused by blood loss or hemorrage, bone marrow disease, menstration & chemo radiation
  151. _____ anemia is a vitamin B12 deficiency
    Ex. Alcoholic and Vegetarians
  152. ____ _____ ______ during pregnancy deficiency can cause spina-bifida
    Folic Acid deficiency
  153. ______ _____ ____ most common deficiency in the world particularly in women
    Iron Deficiency anemia
  154. ____-____ ______ blood cells are malformed and don't carry as much oxygen
    Sickle-cell anemia
  155. blood to lungs is known as ______ circuit
  156. supplying blood to everything else is know as ______ circuit
  157. Heart chamber is lined with tissue called _______
  158. Outside linging of the heart is _____ __________
    Parietal Pericardium
  159. Lining of the heart itself is _____ _________
    Visceral pericardium
  160. _____ _____ is in between the parietal pericardium and the visceral pericardium
    Pericardiacl fluid
  161. ______ is the same as Visceral pericardium
  162. ______ inner portion of the muscle
  163. ______ is the muscle of the heart
  164. _____ is friction or rubbing of the visceral and parietal together
  165. Failure to close valve properly is know as _____ ______
    Valvular insufficiency
  166. _____ ______ is when cusps are tightened because of possible scar tissue
    Valvular stenosis
  167. ____ _____ _____ is when the valve is backed up into the atria druing contraction of ventricles
    Mitral Valve Prolapse
  168. ______ ______ blood that feeds the heart located on the heart wall
    Coronary Circulation
  169. _______ _______ is when circulation is cut off to the heart muscle
    Myocardial Infarction
  170. Not getting enough oxygen into the cells of the heart is ______
  171. _________ is fatty depositis in the artery
  172. _____ _____ is when the heart muscle isn't getting enough O2, but is getting some O2 so it won't cause infarction. Temporary pain from lactic acid
    Angina pectoris
  173. ______ node is located in the R atrium and is know as the ____ _____ of the heart
    • SA node
    • Pace maker
  174. Normal heart rate is know as ____ ______
    Sinus rhythm
  175. ______ node located in the R ventricle and is and electrical gateway to the ventricles
  176. When the SA node gets damaged and AV node picks up slack it is?
    Ectopic focus
  177. ____ ____ heart rhythm slows down to 50 bpm because of damaged SA node
    Nodal rhythm
  178. Abnormal cardiac rhythm is know as
  179. __ _____ electrical sygnal from SA node fires
    P wave
  180. __-__ is artial systole/contracting time in between SA node and AV node
  181. _,_,_ marks the firing of the AV node (the spike)
  182. _-_ firing of ventrical systole
  183. atria is beating uncontrollably 200-400 bpm it is know as ____ ______
    Atrial flutter
  184. ______ ______ is when the ventrical is not getting blood out to the system
    Ventricular Fibrillation V-fib
  185. One complete contraction to relaxation (Lub-Dub) or PQRST is _____ _____
    Cardiac cycle
  186. _________ listen to heart sounds
  187. _____ _____ _____ failure of either of the ventricles to eject the blood efficiently
    Congestive heart failure
  188. _____ _____ is the amount of blood injected by the heart in one min
    Cardiac output
  189. _____ is fast resting heart rate
  190. _____ low resting heart rate