sociology midterm

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sociology midterm
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2010-03-10 15:49:35
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  1. What are the 5 characteristics of bureacracy?
    • 1) Division of Labor
    • 2) Hierarchy of authority
    • 3) Written rules and regulations
    • 4) Impersonality
    • 5) Employment based on technical qualifications
  2. What are the two purposes of deviance from a functionalist prospective?
    • 1) Helps define the limits of proper behavior
    • 2) Changes the norms
  3. What is Kuznets Curve and its implications?
    How societies evolve over time. The curve represents the gap between top and bottom of society. Greater gap = Greater instability
  4. What is false consciousness?
    An attitude held by members of a class that does not accurately reflect their objective position
  5. Who said 'survival of the fittest'?
    Spencer (friends with Darwin)
  6. Who was the first applied sociologist?
    Jane Adams: All priors were theoretical (sat and thought about problems and people)... Marx and Dubois were theoretical
  7. Define Sapir Whorf Hypothesis
    How language defines a culture. More words for something increases its importance to society
  8. A deviant behavior to highlight an injustice is____
    civil disobedience
  9. What is the Peter Principal
    Employees rise to their level of incompetance
  10. Define dysfunction of advertising
    creates consumerism which creates impossible wants
  11. What is the digital divide?
    Lack of access to hte latest technology among low income minorities and developing countries
  12. What is a secondary group?
    A formal, impersonal group with little social intamacy or mutual understanding (pg 425)
  13. What is a reference group?
    The group of people you want to be.
  14. What is racism
    One race is supreme, all others inferior
  15. What is prejudice?
    A negative attitude toward a category of people (often minorities)
  16. What is a stereotype?
    Unreliable generalizations about all members of a group (no induviduals)
  17. What is differential association?
    Sutterland: holds that violation of rules results from exposure to attitudes favorable to criminal acts.
  18. What is degradation?
    To be resocialized such as in the military
  19. What is an achieved status?
    Becoming something like a proffessor etc.
  20. What is an ascribed status?
    Your characteristics: Ex white, middle aged, etc
  21. What is role exit?
    Exiting one role for another: Ex high school to college
  22. What is narcotizing dysfunction?
    When the public becomes numb to an issue due to extreme amounts of media coverage
  23. What is gate keeping?
    When a small group of people control the media industry and ultimately what reaches the population
  24. What is egocasting?
    Personalized news: Cut off from other news
  25. What is functionalism?
    It asks "how does this work?" and "who does it function for"
  26. What is conflict?
    Who is getting screwed, power differential
  27. What are the three parts of symbolic interactionism?
    • 1) Man vs women and teacher vs student
    • 2) Role differential
    • 3) What does this mean, what purpose does it serve
  28. Who was the father of sociology?
    Auguste
  29. Who was the founder of the scientific method)
    Durkheim
  30. What is impression management?
    Goffman's process: Though are daily activities we try to convey impressions of who we are to others
  31. What is the looking glass self?
    Cooley: we learn by interacting with others
  32. What is a 'rite of passage'
    Life events that mark our entrance into a new role
  33. What is trained incapacity?
    WHen workers become so specialized they develop blind spots and fail to notice obvious problems
  34. What is dominant ideology?
    a set of cultural beleifs and practices that helps maintain powerful social, economic, and political interests
  35. What is the conflic view of society?
    Characterized by tension and struggle between groups
  36. What is latent function?
    An unconscious or unintended function that may reflect hidden purposes
  37. What is an argot?
    Specialized language used by members of a group or subculture
  38. What is culture?
    The totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material and behavior.
  39. What is a folkway?
    A norm governing everyday behavior who violation raises comparitively little concern
  40. What is an informal norm?
    A norm that is generally understood but not prescisely recorded
  41. What is a more?
    Norms deemed highly important to the welfare of society
  42. What is a norm?
    An established standard of behavior maintained by a society
  43. What is ethnography?
    The study of an entire social setting through extended systematic observation
  44. What is content analysis?
    A systematic coding and objective recording of data guided by some rationale
  45. What is causal logic?
    The relationship between a condition or variable and a particular consequence, with one event leading to another

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