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What are the 5 characteristics of bureacracy?
- 1) Division of Labor
- 2) Hierarchy of authority
- 3) Written rules and regulations
- 4) Impersonality
- 5) Employment based on technical qualifications
What are the two purposes of deviance from a functionalist prospective?
- 1) Helps define the limits of proper behavior
- 2) Changes the norms
What is Kuznets Curve and its implications?
How societies evolve over time. The curve represents the gap between top and bottom of society. Greater gap = Greater instability
What is false consciousness?
An attitude held by members of a class that does not accurately reflect their objective position
Who said 'survival of the fittest'?
Spencer (friends with Darwin)
Who was the first applied sociologist?
Jane Adams: All priors were theoretical (sat and thought about problems and people)... Marx and Dubois were theoretical
Define Sapir Whorf Hypothesis
How language defines a culture. More words for something increases its importance to society
A deviant behavior to highlight an injustice is____
What is the Peter Principal
Employees rise to their level of incompetance
Define dysfunction of advertising
creates consumerism which creates impossible wants
What is the digital divide?
Lack of access to hte latest technology among low income minorities and developing countries
What is a secondary group?
A formal, impersonal group with little social intamacy or mutual understanding (pg 425)
What is a reference group?
The group of people you want to be.
What is racism
One race is supreme, all others inferior
What is prejudice?
A negative attitude toward a category of people (often minorities)
What is a stereotype?
Unreliable generalizations about all members of a group (no induviduals)
What is differential association?
Sutterland: holds that violation of rules results from exposure to attitudes favorable to criminal acts.
What is degradation?
To be resocialized such as in the military
What is an achieved status?
Becoming something like a proffessor etc.
What is an ascribed status?
Your characteristics: Ex white, middle aged, etc
What is role exit?
Exiting one role for another: Ex high school to college
What is narcotizing dysfunction?
When the public becomes numb to an issue due to extreme amounts of media coverage
What is gate keeping?
When a small group of people control the media industry and ultimately what reaches the population
What is egocasting?
Personalized news: Cut off from other news
What is functionalism?
It asks "how does this work?" and "who does it function for"
What is conflict?
Who is getting screwed, power differential
What are the three parts of symbolic interactionism?
- 1) Man vs women and teacher vs student
- 2) Role differential
- 3) What does this mean, what purpose does it serve
Who was the father of sociology?
Who was the founder of the scientific method)
What is impression management?
Goffman's process: Though are daily activities we try to convey impressions of who we are to others
What is the looking glass self?
Cooley: we learn by interacting with others
What is a 'rite of passage'
Life events that mark our entrance into a new role
What is trained incapacity?
WHen workers become so specialized they develop blind spots and fail to notice obvious problems
What is dominant ideology?
a set of cultural beleifs and practices that helps maintain powerful social, economic, and political interests
What is the conflic view of society?
Characterized by tension and struggle between groups
What is latent function?
An unconscious or unintended function that may reflect hidden purposes
What is an argot?
Specialized language used by members of a group or subculture
What is culture?
The totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material and behavior.
What is a folkway?
A norm governing everyday behavior who violation raises comparitively little concern
What is an informal norm?
A norm that is generally understood but not prescisely recorded
What is a more?
Norms deemed highly important to the welfare of society
What is a norm?
An established standard of behavior maintained by a society
What is ethnography?
The study of an entire social setting through extended systematic observation
What is content analysis?
A systematic coding and objective recording of data guided by some rationale
What is causal logic?
The relationship between a condition or variable and a particular consequence, with one event leading to another
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