Nursing chapter 1
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- is a higher standard than an approved program. it signifies that the accrediting organization has judged that a program has met its preestablished criteria.
- Administrators of the program seeking accreditation submit voluntarily to the accreditation process; they do this because of the recognition of quality it confers. Often the standards established by professional organizations that give accreditation are far higher than those established by the state.
- Accreditation is sxtremely important when programs seek federal funding.
- A program that satisfies minimum standards set by the state agency responsible for overseeing educational programs.
- It meets the needs of the student, has adewuate course content and qualified faculty, is of sufficient length, has adequate facilities, and priovides clinincal experience.
A process by which the nurse is granted recognition for competency in a specific area of nursing.
A condition of physical, mental, and social well-being and the absence of disease or other abnormal conditions.
Health Care System
- the complete network of agencies, facilities, and providers involved with health care in a specified geographic area.
- This environment includes the patient, the pattient's family, the community in which the system is operating, the current technology, the medical profession in the community, 3rd party participants (ins. companies)
- The major goal of this system is to achieve optimal levels of health care
Of or pertaining to the whole; taking into consideration all factors, as holistic medicine.
Holistic Health Care
a system of comprehensive or total patient care that considers the physical, emotional, social, economic, and spiritual needs of a person.
An abnormal process in which aspects of the social, emotional, or intellectual condition and function of a person are dimished or impaired.
The granting of permission by a competent authority (usually a government agency) to an organization or individual to engage in a practice or activity that would otherwise be illegal.
The art and science of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease and the maintenance of good health.
a recipient of a health care service.
a dynamic state of health in which an individual progresses toward a higher level of functioning, achieving an optimal balance between internal and external environment.
- The custom of embalming enabled the egyptians to become well aquainted with the organs of the body.
- they learned to recognize some 250 diseases.
- they developed a number of drugs and procedures such as surgery.
- their care included detailed instructions for daily nursing care, which included recording the pulse, using splints and bandages, and using hollow catheters as reeds.
- The Father of Medicine.
- Brilliant progressive physician
- Rejected the belief in a supernatural origin of disease.
- Adopted a system of physical assessment, observation, and record keeping.
- Developed the hippocratic oath
- His work is the basis for the hollistic approach to patient care.
- German pastor in Kaiserwerth, Germany, in the 19th century.
- established the first school of nursing.
- Attended the Kaiserwerth nursing school in 1851
- The first nursing theorist
- "The Lady with the Lamp" - Crimeon War
- Crimeon War - she worked at teh Barrak hospital. She turned the tide at the hospital. she made sure teh hospital units were cleaned, the clothes were laundered. Sanitary conditions, which were nonexistant before, were established. The mortality rate dropped significantly.
- Through her patience, dedication, and empathetic treatment of the soldiers, a psychological change took place in the hospital as well.
- Under her influence, nursing changed from an occupation to a profession.
- Established a nursing school at St Thomas Hospital.
- Established the registered nursing system.
in 1849 Theodor Fliedner traveled to the United States and set up the first Protestant hospital in the US, and the first formal education for nurses in the US
Changes in Nursing in the 20th century
- Contemporary nursing
- Nursing caps, uniforms, pins
Significant Changes in Nursing in the 21st Century
- Demographic Changes
- Women's health care issues -
- Men in Nursing
- Human Rights
- Medically underserved
- Threat of bioterrorism
In 1965 the American Nurses Association took a position recommending that nursing education take place in institutions of learning within the general system of education.
Their position paper set the baccalaureate degree in nursing as the minimum acceptable preparation for the beginning professional nurse and the associate degree in nursing as the minimum for technical nursing practice.
- The first school for training practical nurses started in Brooklyn, NY, in 1892 at the YWCA.
- 3 month training
- trained students to care for chronically ill, invalids, children and elderly
- emphasis was cooking, nutrition, basic science, and basic nursing.
- founded in 1941 as Association pf Practical Nurse School.
- Changes to National Association of Practical Nurse Education in 1942
- planned the first standard curriculum for practical nursing. helped set standards for lpn/lvn practice, promote and protect the interests of lpn/lvn.
- National Federation of Licensed Practical Nurses
- Founded by Lillian Kuster in 1949Official membership organization for lpn/lvns. helped set standards for the lpn/lvn, promotes and protects the interests of lpn/lvn.
- National Council Licensing Examination
- NCLEX-PN in the state board test students have to take to get their LVN license
- Allows nursing programs to plan theit curricula collaboratively; the purpose id to lessen duplication of learning experiences and support a process of pregressive build up.
- Acknowledges the student's existing knowledge base and permits the student to continue his or her advancement in education without repeating previous course work. (bridge programs)
The career ladder is a model that some institutions follow for nurses' advancement. A career ladder serves to recognize the clinical expertise of the nurse and provide a mechanism for financial compensation and opportunities for advancement
Licensing laws have been passed to protect the public from unqualified practitioners in most fields and professions.
put into effect through the board of nursing
areas such as states, which have the legal power to regulate nursing licensure and practice
Reciprocity between states
you can obtain licensing fpr practice in other jurisdictions without repeating the licensure examination if you meet the resident state requirements.
the range of a person's total health
- Created Maslow's model of health and illness
- Believed that an individual's behavior is formed by the individual's attempts to meet essential human needs, which he defined as physiologic, safety and security, love and belongingness, and esteem and self-actualization.
- A person has to meet the needs at the base of the pyramid before advancing to the more noble or lofty needs higher on the pyramid.
Health Promotion and Illness Prevention
- Today, health care providers also seek to determine the cause of illness and prevent its spread.
- health statistics gathered by the US Department of Public Health now help to identify what types pf diseases are most prevalent, which age groups seem to be affected by certain illness, and which illnesses dominate in various parts of the country.
- The thrust of healthcare efforts has shifted from cure to prevention. By decreasing the risk factors for a gicen illness or disease and thereby preventing it, medicine has, in general, enhanced the quality of life and life expectancy in the US
Continuity of Care
- ensuring the continuation of care from one setting to another
- understanding what procedures are done, why, and by whom is a discouraging and often impossible task for pts already bewildered and frightened be medical conditions that threaten their well being.
the LVN/LPN practiced under the license and supervision of the RN, medical physician, osteopathic physician, or dentist.
LVN job is based on the scope of practice outlined in a given state's nurse practice act.
Economic factors affecting health and illness
- Rising Health Care Costs
- aging population, advances in technology, rising cost of health care insurance, malpractice insurance, miscellaneous factors ( people avoid preventive and routine tx and are only seen in crisis)
- Changes in Delivery
- Case management - proven to reduce the length of stay for the pt, cross training - individuals receive training to perform dutied that vary according to the needs at a given time, and other trends - health care chains, HMOs
Environmental factors affecting health and illness
- Pesonal financila hardship, lifestyle, social pressures, and major societal issues (AIDS, abortion, drug abuse, etc.)are some of the more onvious social factors. Stress, conflict, smoking, excessive weight, and alcoholism are among the physical factors.
- Although we tend to separate social factors from physical factors, remember that the two areas affect each other reciprocally.
In 1972 the American Hospital Association (AHA) issued the Patient's Bill of Rights in an effort to make sure pt's expectations (to be treated with dignity and compassion and to have their rights respected) are fulfilled.
The Patient's Bill of Rights was replaced in 2003 when the AHA adopted the Patient Care Partnership. Under the terms of this document, patients are assured they can expect high-quality hospital care, a clean and safe environment, and involvement in their care and the decision making process.
The primary goal of the health care team is the optimal physical, mental, and social well-being of the patient.
A document that outlines the individual needs of the patient and the approach of the health care team to meet these needs. It is developed in cooperation with the patient and, in come cases, the patient's family.
Good Communication is essential for the exchange of information among the members of the health care team.
- Documentation in any form is the permanent record of the patient's progress and treatment. It constitutes the formal and legal record of care received by the patient and the patjient's response to that care.
- it provides a progress record of treatment and a history of events
4 major concepts that were the basis for all nursing models of care
- Nursing - encompasses the roles and actions of the nurse
- Patient - the individual receiving the care
- Health - the area along the wellness-illness continuum that the patient occupies
- Environment - the setting for the nurse-patient interaction
Practical vocational nursing is defined as the activity of providing specific services to patients under the direct supervision of a licensed physician pr dentist, RN, podiatrist, or some other combination. The services are provided in a structures setting surrounding the caring for the sick, the rehabilitation of the sick and injured and the precention of sickness and injury,
The nurse has a unique function: to assist individuals, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health, to their recovery, or to a peaceful death.
The practical or vocational nurse is educated to be a responsible member of a health care team, performing basic therapeutic, rehabilitative, and preventative care for anyone who needs it.
The objectives for practical and vocational nursing education are the following:
- To acquire the specialized knowledge and skills needed to meet the health care needs of patients in a variety of setitngs
- To be a graduate of a state-approved practical or vocational nursing program.
- To take and pass the NCLEX-PN Examination
- To acquire a state license to practice
In 1981, NAPNES determined the following responsibilities for an LPN/LVN:
- Recognize the LPN/LVNs role in the health care delivery system and articulates that role with those other health care teammembers.
- Maintains accountability for one's own nursing practice within the ethical and legal framework
- Serves as a patient advocate
- Accepts the LPN/LVN's role in maiintaining developing standards of practice in providing health care
- Seeks further growth through educational opportunities
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