A & P chapter 3

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A & P chapter 3
2011-08-30 04:09:59
Summit chapter

The Human Body in Health and Disease
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  1. Cell
    • The basic unit of all life
    • It is the simplest structure that shows all the characteristics of life, including organization, metabolism, responsiveness, homeostasis, growth, and reproduction
  2. Cytology
    The study of cells
  3. Plasma Membrane
    • Formerly called the cell membrane
    • not only encloses the cell contents but also participates in many cellularactivities, such as growth, reproduction, and interactions between calls, and is especially important in regulating what can enter and leave the cell.
    • Main substance of this membrane is a double layer of lipid molecules called a bilayer
    • Cholesterol strengthens the plasma membrabe
  4. Phospholipids
    a complex lipid containing phosphorus
  5. Enzyme
    • an organic catalyst
    • speeds the rate of a chemical reaction but its not changed in the reaction
  6. (Plasma membrane)
    pores in the membrane that allow specific substances to enter or leave. Certain ions travel through channels in the membrane
  7. (plasma membrane)
    shuttle substances from one side of the membrane to the other.
  8. (plasma membrane)
    • points of attachment for materials coming to the cell in the blood or tissue fluid.
    • some hormones, for example, must attach to receptors on the cell surface before they can act upon the cell
  9. Linkers
    give structure to the cell membrane and help attach cells to each other
  10. Cell identity markers
    proteins unique to an individual's cells. these are important in the immune system and are also a factor in transplantation of tissue from one person to another
  11. Microvilli
    small projections of the plasma membrane that increase surface area, allowing for greater absorption on materials from the cell's environment
  12. Organelles
    • the cell's specialized structures that perform specific tasks
    • "little organs"
  13. Nucleus
    • the largest of the organelles
    • The "brain" or "control center" of the cell
    • contains the chromosomes
  14. Chromosomes
    threadlike units of heredity that are passed on from parents to their offspring. It is information contained in the chromosomes that governs all cellular activities.
  15. nucleolus
    • "little nucleus"
    • the job of the nucleolus is to assemble ribosomes
  16. Ribosomes
    small bodies outside the nucleus that are involved in the manufacture of proteins
  17. Cytoplasm
    the material that fills the cell from the nuclear membrane to the plasma membrane
  18. Cytosol
    • the liquid part of the cytoplasm
    • a suspension of nutrients, minerals, enzymes, and other specialized material in water.
  19. Endoplasmic reticulum
    • a network of membranes located between the nuclear membrane and the plasma membrane.
    • Smooth ER - involved in the synthesis of lipids
    • Rough ER - has ribosomes
  20. Ribosomes
    • Protein factory
    • attatched to the rough ER
    • necessary for the manufacture of proteins
  21. Mitochondria
    • Power Plant
    • large organelles with folded membranes inside
    • converts energy from nutrients into ATP
  22. Golgi Apparatus
    Layers of membrane sacs involved in sorting and modifying proteins and packaging them for export from the cell.
  23. Lysosomes
    • small sacks of digestive enzymes in the cytoplasm
    • contain digestive enzymes, remove waste and foreign materials from the cell. Also involved in destroying old and damaged cells as needed for repair and remodeling of tissue.
    • Cellular recycling
  24. Peroxisomes
    • membrane enclosed organelles containing enzymes
    • have enzymes that destroy harmful substances produced in metabolism
    • cellular recycling
  25. Vessicles
    Small membrane-bound sacs used for storage. can be used to move materials into or out of the cell.
  26. Centrioles
    • rod shaped bodies near the nucleus that function in cell division
    • help separate the chromosomes during cell division
  27. Cilia
    small hair like projections that wave, creating movement of the fluids around the cell
  28. Flagellum
    • long whip like extension from the cell
    • moves the cell
    • sperm
  29. Genes
    • Hereditary factor
    • portion of the DNA on a chromosome
  30. DNA
    • deoxyribonucleic acid
    • genetic material of the cell
    • makes up the cell's chromosomes in the cell's nucleus
  31. nucleotides
    building block of DNA and RNA
  32. RNA
    • ribonucleic acid
    • substance neededfor protein manufacture in the cell
  33. Meiosis
    cells that form sex cells (egg and sperm) divide by the process of meiosis, which cuts the chromosome number in half to prepare for union of the egg and sperm in fertilization.
  34. Mitosis
    • All body cells except sex cells divide by mitosis
    • T=twin
    • each cell splits in half and becomes two daughter cells
  35. Somatic cell
    any cell that is not a sex cell - egg or sperm
  36. Phases of Mitosis
    • Interphase
    • Prophase
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase
    • Telophase
  37. Interphase
    • The period when the cell is not in active mitosis
    • the stage in a cell's life between one mitosis and the next
    • DNA replicates during this phase
  38. centromere
    • where the DNA strands are held together
    • separates during mitosis
  39. Prophase
    First stage of mitosis, during which the chromosomes become visible and the organelles disappear
  40. Metaphase
    Second stage of mitosis in which the chromosomes line up across the equator of the cell attached to spindle fibers
  41. Anaphase
    The third stage of mitosis in which the chromosomes separate and move to opposite sides of the cell
  42. Telophase
    The fourth stage of mitosis in which during which the new nuclei form and the cell contents usually divide. A membrane forms around each new cell
  43. Passive transport
    • movement through the plasma membrane that does not require energy output by the cell
    • depends on the internal energy of moving particles or some outside source of energy such as diffusion , osmosis, filtration or facilitated diffusion
  44. Diffusion
    The movement of particles from a region of a relatively higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
  45. Osmosis
    diffusion of WATER membranes through a semi permeable membrane
  46. Filtration
    the passage of water and dissolved material through a membrane as a result of a mechanicla ("pushing") force on one side
  47. Facilitated diffusion
    the movement of materials across the plasma membrane inthe direction of the concentration gradient (from higher concentration to lower concentration) but using transporters to move the material at a faster rate
  48. Active Transport
    movement through the plasma membrane that requires energy
  49. Selectively Permeable
    regulates what can enter and leave the cell based on the needs of the cell
  50. Endocytosis
    • the bulk movement of materials into the cell
    • phagocytosis - relatively parge particles are engulfed by the plasma membrane and moved into the cell. "cell eating"
    • pinocytosis - the plasma membrane engulfs dropletts of fluid. "cell drinking"
  51. Exocytosis
    the cell moves materials out in vessicles
  52. Isotonic solution
    a solution that has the same concentration as the fluid within the cell
  53. Hypotonic Solution
    a solution that is less concentrated than the fluids with in the cell
  54. Hypertonic
    when a fluid is more concentrated than the fluids in the cell
  55. Cancer Risk Factors
    • Heredity
    • Chemicals - carcinogens are chemicals that cause cancer
    • Ionizing radiation
    • Physical Irritation
    • Diet
    • Viruses