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  1. chapter 1
    intro to pharmacology
  2. any substance that is taken to prevent, cure, or reduce symptoms of a medical condition
  3. when someone is dehydrated, water (saline) solution may be infused into patient to treat a condition
    water (saline) is considered a drug
  4. when someone with a vit c deficiency may be administered to cure scurvy
    vit C is considered a drug
  5. study of medicine
  6. application of drugs for prevention of disease and treatment of suffering
  7. expansive subject from understanding how drugs are administered, where they traveled in the body and the actual response they produce
  8. begins when the patient experience signs and symptoms that cause dissatisfaction in health status
  9. nurse's role in pharmacology
    • -administer drugs to pt.
    • -monitor and document the effects of drug administered
    • -design interventions that meet pt. health goals
  10. drugs may elicit different responses depending on pt. factors:
    age, gender, race, body mass, health status and genetics
  11. goal of pharmacotherapy
    select the perfect or ideal drug for the pt
  12. classification of drug
    • -therapeutic
    • -pharmacologic
    • -mixed categories
  13. -drugs that offer treatment of disease
    -what is being treated by the drug
    -uses prefixe anti-
    therapeutic classification
  14. Pneumonia - use of antibiotic
  15. -describe how the drug acts
    -drug mechanism of action
    -uses drug's chemical name
  16. underactive thyroid gland - supplement with synthetic thyroid
  17. drugs that overlap into different or both therapeutic and/or pharmacologic classifications
    mixed categories
  18. HTN meds beta blockers
    -lowers bp (P)
    -therapeutically use to treat migrain (T)
    mixed categories
  19. compare all drugs in a classification to one particular drug
    -ex: others kinds of hormone secretion meds are developed and compared to Prozac which makes it the prototype
    drug prototype
  20. -related to chemical and molecular structure
    -uses standard nomenclature
    ex. Acetylsalicylic Acid
    chemical name
  21. -derived from chemical name
    -less complicated and easy to remember
    -only one generic name for each drug
    ex: Aspirin
    generic name
  22. -proprietary name given by manufacturer
    -"brand name"
    ex. Ecotrin (aspirin)
    trade name
  23. competing companies are not allowed to market generic versions of product
  24. drug with more thatn one active generic ingredient
    combination drugs
  25. -rate of extent to which active ingredient is absorbed from a drug product and becomes available at site of drug action to produce its effect
    -measure how long a drug takes to exert its effect
    -compre brand name drugs and their generic equivalents
  26. nurse's responsibilities:
    • -nurses should know what drug is ordered (name and drug classification)
    • -indications and contraindications
    • -adverse rxn or side effects
    • -administration (does and route)
    • -nursing considerations (growth and dev'tmental factors
  27. chapter 2
    drug regulations
  28. -inform the public and protect them from unsafe and ineffective products
    -protect the public so they can receive safe meds
    drug legislations
  29. -ability to legally make or sell a drug
    -contained a clearly indentified brand name
    -often harmless (ineffective) containing coloring, flavoring or aromatic subs
    -cocaine heroin and morphine were distributed to these meds
    Patent Medications
  30. -keep records of dispensed narcotic drugs
    -ILLEGAL to possess narcotics WITHOUT prescription
    -precribe narcotics only for treatment. not to addicts
    1914 - Harrison Narcotic Act
  31. prevent the sale of drugs that has not been thoroughly tested for safety before marketing
    1938 - the Food Drug and Cosmetic Act
  32. difference between safer drugs, which may be sold OTC or require prescriptions
    1951 - Durham Humphrey Amendments
  33. -development of drugs to treat rare or unusual disorders
    -legislation and drug manufacturers offered dev't grants and expenses to approved orphan drugs
    1983 - Orphan Drug Act
  34. clear labelling of dietary supplements and remove supplements that cause a significant public risk
    1994 - the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act
  35. provide seniors and those with disabilities a prescription drug benefit under medicare
    2003 - Medicare Prescription Drug Improvement and Modernization Act
  36. Drug Standards:
    • -US Pharmacopeia - National Formulary
    • -FDA
  37. medical reference summarizing standards of drug purity, strength and directions for synthesis
  38. every pill in a bottle has the same ingredient as th other pill
  39. -protect the public health by assuring efficacy, safety and security
    -speed innovations that make medicines and foods more effective, safer and affordable
    -get accurate science-based info
  40. drug approval process
    all drugs must be approved by the FDA before they can be sold in the US
  41. 1st stage, extensive lab testing
    -perform testingon human and animals to examine drug effectiveness
    -goal is to determine drug action and predict whether drug will cause harm to human
    -FDA does not regulate this testing
    Preclinical Research
  42. pharmaceutical company sumbits an application to FDA that contains animal and cell testing data
    Investigational New Drug
  43. 2nd stage, longest part of drug approval
    includes 3 different stages
    clinical phase trials
  44. focuses on safety/ 20-80 health volunteers
    Phase 1
  45. -focuses on effectiveness and safety, several hundred pt.
    -effectiveness compared to Placebo
    Phase 2
  46. drug-drug interactions
    large # of pt with diseases are given the drug to determines pt variability
    Phase 3
  47. signals pharmaceutical company that the drug is ready to sell
    NDA - new drug application
  48. stage 4 of drug approval process
    survey for harmful drug effects in larger population
    Postmarketing Surveillance
  49. predominantly used in drug research
    Caucasian males
  50. excluded due to hoemonal changes and pregnancy
  51. in order to obtain a prescrption drug:
    health care provider must provide a written authorization with proper amount and frequency
  52. do not require an order from a health care provider. may treat themselves if instructions are followed properly
  53. why pt. prefer OTC than Prescription drugs?
    Otc drugs may be obtained easily w/o making an appt, saves time and money
  54. former RX drugs that are now OTC
    Zyrtec, Claritin, pepcid, Prilosec
  55. drugs that have significant potential for abuse, 5 categories of schedules
    -regulated according to their potential for abuse
    -locked in cabinet
    Scheduled drugs
  56. highest addictive, not accepted for medical use/treatment in US, not allowed to prescribe
    ex: Heorin, LSD, Peyote
    Schedule I
  57. -highest addictive, drug has accepted to be used for treatments in US with severe restrictions
    -ex: must use special order form, written and sign by provider to obtain the drug; telephone orders are not permitted
    Ex: opioids (morphine), demerol, dilaudid
    schedule II
  58. less potential for addiction, currently accepted in medical use treatment in US
    -ex: codaine, hydrocodone, immediate-acting barbituates
    schedule III
  59. lower potential for addiction, accepted medical use for treatment in US
    Ex: Benzodiazipines, long-acting barbituates
    schedule IV
  60. lowest potential for addiction, currently accepted medical use in US
    Ex: cough medicines with codaine, lomotil
    schedule V
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