Organic Chemistry/Water

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Organic Chemistry/Water
2011-08-30 15:27:01
Organic Chemistry Water

Concept 2.2
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  1. Chemical Bond
    an attractive force that links two atoms together in a molecule
  2. Ionic Bonds
    form when atoms gain or lose one or more electrons to achieve stability; formed as the result of the electrical attraction between ions bearing opposite charges
  3. Ion
    an electrically charged particle that forms when an atom gains or loses one or more electrons
  4. Cation
    positively charged ions; Na+ has a charge of +1 because it has one less electron than it has protons
  5. Anion
    Negatively charged ions; Cl- has a charge of -1 because it has one more electron than it has protons
  6. Covalent Bond
    • forms when two atoms attain stable electron numbers in their outermost shells by sharing one or more pairs of electrons.
    • Consider two hydrogen atoms coming in close proximity, each with an unpaired electron in its single shell. when the electrons pair up, stability occurs, forming the molecule H2
  7. Single Bond
    • involves the sharing of a single pair of electrons
    • H-H or C-H
  8. Double Bond
    involves the sharing of four electrons (two pairs); C=C
  9. Triple Bonds
    six shared electrons- are rare, but there is one in nitrogen gas (N = N), which is a major component of the air we breathe.
  10. Electronegativity
    The attractive force that an atomic nucleus exerts on electrons in a covalent bond
  11. Nonpolar Covalent Bond
    • if two atoms are close to each other in electronegativity, they will share electrons equally
    • For ex) two oxygen atoms, each with an electronegativity of 3., will share electrons equally
  12. Unequally shared
    when hydrogen bonds with oxygen to form water, the electrons involved are ..
  13. Polar Covalent Bond
    when electrons are drawn to one nucleus more than the other
  14. Hydrogen Bond
    bond resulting from the attraction of the negatively charged oxygen atom of one water molecule is attracted to the positively charged hydrogen atoms of other water molecules
  15. Heat Capacity
    hydrogen bonds contribute to the heat capacity of water. Raising the temperature of liquid water takes a lot of heat, because much of the heat energy is used to break the hydrogen bonds that hold the liquid together
  16. Heat of Vaporization
    Hydrogen bonding also gives water a high heat of vaporization, means that a lot of heat is required to change water from its liquid to its gaseous state. Evaporation has a cooling effect on the environment.
  17. Cohesion
    defined as the capacity of water molecules to resist coming apart from one another when placed under tension
  18. Hydrophilic
    "water loving"
  19. Hydrophobic
    "water hating"
  20. Functional groups
    groups of atoms that give important properties to biological molecules; each functional group has specific chemical properties, and when attached to a larger molecule, confer those properties on the larger molecule
  21. Macromolecules
    large molecules; formed by covalent linkages of smaller molecules (Monomers)
  22. Proteins
    formed from different combinations of 20 amino acids, all of which chemical similarities
  23. Carbohydrates
    can be giant molecules, and are formed by linking together chemically similar suger monnomers (monosaccharides) to form polysaccharides
  24. Nucleic acids
    are formed from four kinds of nucleotide monomers linked together in long chains
  25. Lipid
    also form from large structures from a limited set of smaller molecules, but in this case noncovalent forces maintain the interactions between lipid monomers
  26. In Condensation, the removal of water links monomers together
    In hydrolysis, the addition of water breaks a polymer into monomers