physiology Lab 4

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Author:
rleighn25
ID:
99049
Filename:
physiology Lab 4
Updated:
2011-08-30 15:31:12
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physiology lab reflexes
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Description:
Nervous System #2
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  1. Reflex Arc- unconscious motor output due to sensory input
    Sensory (afferent)neuron---->Spinal cord----> Motor (efferent) neuron----> effector (ex: muscle or gland)
  2. 2 point threshold (acuity for sensation)
    • minimum distance at which 2 points are perceived as being the same or separate
    • Ex: palm, back of forearm, back of upper arm, calf, top of foot
  3. Referred pain-
    • pain that is perceived as coming from a source other than its true origin.
    • why?-the nerves from the perceived source and the true origin- enter the spinal cord at the same level and the information is misinterpreted by the brain.
  4. Accomodation
    the ability of the eye to focus the images of objects at different distances from the lens.
  5. Nystagmus
    Involuntary oscillations of the eye
  6. Pupillary reflex
    parasympathetic nervous system(bright lights-->constrict pupil), Sympathetic-->dialation of the pupil
  7. Afferent neurons are
    sensory--> towards CNS
  8. Efferent neurons are
    motor--> away from CNS
  9. How many synapse are crossed in a single reflex arc during a muscle stretch reflex?
    1 synapse
  10. The ventral root of spinal nerves contain____ neurons, whereas the dorsal root contains____ neurons.
    • Ventral= Motor
    • Dorsal= Sensory
  11. Describe the sequence of events that occurs from the time the patellar tendon is stretched to the time the leg is extended ( knee-jerk reflex)
    Patellar tendon is tapped---> stimulates sensory neuron---> A.P. spinal cord---> A.P. motor neuron---> A.P. muscles quads---> leg/knee extends
  12. Describe the pathway for hearing from external stimulus to neural stimulation; include all relevant terminology
    Sound waves (stimulus)---> Pinna (auricle)---> External auditory canal---> Tympanic membrane---> Mallus---> Incus---> Stapes---> Oval window---> Cochlea---> Spiral organ of corti---> Basilar membrane (vibrated by perilymph)---> Sensory hair cells move---> Stimulate the tectorial membrane---> Cause A.P. down Cranial Nerve 8 (Vestibularcochlear Nerve)---> To medulla---> Thalamus---> Auditory cortex (temporal lobe)
  13. The organ of equilibrium is called the
    Vestibular apparatus
  14. The structures sensitive to angular acceleration in three planes are the
    semicircular canals
  15. The structure sensitive to linear acceleration are the ____and_____. Together, they are called the____organs
    Utricle(horizontal), Saccule (verticle)= Otolith organs
  16. The fluid within the organs of equilibrium is known as
    endolymph
  17. An illusion of movement or spinning is called
    vertigo
  18. The sense of equilibrium is transmitted by the__ (its number) cranial nerve, also known as the____ (its name) nerve.
    VIII, Vestibularcochlear
  19. Describe how the senses equilibrium from externl stimulus to neural stimulation; include all relevant terminolgy
    • Start spinning left---> Endolymph lags behind bending cupula to the (R); as the spinning continues the cupula straightens up; when the spinning stops thte endolymph continue in the same direction as the spin (L) bending the cupula to the (L).
    • After a period of time returns to "rest". The bending of the cupula stimulates the sensory hair cells causing A.P. down Cranial nerve VIII
  20. Vestibular Nystagmus
    • As the spin begins (to the left) the eyes look to the Right; as the spin continues to the Left the eyes look to the Right
    • When the spin stops they oscillate to the Left and then "jerk" back to midline

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