physiology Lab 4
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Reflex Arc- unconscious motor output due to sensory input
Sensory (afferent)neuron---->Spinal cord----> Motor (efferent) neuron----> effector (ex: muscle or gland)
2 point threshold (acuity for sensation)
- minimum distance at which 2 points are perceived as being the same or separate
- Ex: palm, back of forearm, back of upper arm, calf, top of foot
- pain that is perceived as coming from a source other than its true origin.
- why?-the nerves from the perceived source and the true origin- enter the spinal cord at the same level and the information is misinterpreted by the brain.
the ability of the eye to focus the images of objects at different distances from the lens.
Involuntary oscillations of the eye
parasympathetic nervous system(bright lights-->constrict pupil), Sympathetic-->dialation of the pupil
Afferent neurons are
sensory--> towards CNS
Efferent neurons are
motor--> away from CNS
How many synapse are crossed in a single reflex arc during a muscle stretch reflex?
The ventral root of spinal nerves contain____ neurons, whereas the dorsal root contains____ neurons.
- Ventral= Motor
- Dorsal= Sensory
Describe the sequence of events that occurs from the time the patellar tendon is stretched to the time the leg is extended ( knee-jerk reflex)
Patellar tendon is tapped---> stimulates sensory neuron---> A.P. spinal cord---> A.P. motor neuron---> A.P. muscles quads---> leg/knee extends
Describe the pathway for hearing from external stimulus to neural stimulation; include all relevant terminology
Sound waves (stimulus)---> Pinna (auricle)---> External auditory canal---> Tympanic membrane---> Mallus---> Incus---> Stapes---> Oval window---> Cochlea---> Spiral organ of corti---> Basilar membrane (vibrated by perilymph)---> Sensory hair cells move---> Stimulate the tectorial membrane---> Cause A.P. down Cranial Nerve 8 (Vestibularcochlear Nerve)---> To medulla---> Thalamus---> Auditory cortex (temporal lobe)
The organ of equilibrium is called the
The structures sensitive to angular acceleration in three planes are the
The structure sensitive to linear acceleration are the ____and_____. Together, they are called the____organs
Utricle(horizontal), Saccule (verticle)= Otolith organs
The fluid within the organs of equilibrium is known as
An illusion of movement or spinning is called
The sense of equilibrium is transmitted by the__ (its number) cranial nerve, also known as the____ (its name) nerve.
Describe how the senses equilibrium from externl stimulus to neural stimulation; include all relevant terminolgy
- Start spinning left---> Endolymph lags behind bending cupula to the (R); as the spinning continues the cupula straightens up; when the spinning stops thte endolymph continue in the same direction as the spin (L) bending the cupula to the (L).
- After a period of time returns to "rest". The bending of the cupula stimulates the sensory hair cells causing A.P. down Cranial nerve VIII
- As the spin begins (to the left) the eyes look to the Right; as the spin continues to the Left the eyes look to the Right
- When the spin stops they oscillate to the Left and then "jerk" back to midline
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