BIOL432 Vertebrate Origins

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BIOL432 Vertebrate Origins
2011-08-31 00:24:30
BIOL432 Vertebrate Origins

BIOL432 Vertebrate Origins
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  1. What does Protostome mean?
    First Opening or Mouth
  2. What does Deuterostome mean?
    Second Opening or Anus
  3. What 6 characteristics define the Phylum Chordata?
    • Dorsal hollow nerve cord
    • Paired pharyngeal slits
    • Notochord
    • Post-anal tail
    • Endostyle
    • Segmental muscle blocks
  4. What is the Endostyle analogous to in Humans?
    Thyroid Gland
  5. What are two examples of Urochordata?
    • Sea Squirts
    • Tunicates
  6. What does "Uro" mean?
  7. Most individuals in Urochordata tend to be what kind of animals?
    Sessile marine animals.
  8. What is the main difference between the Larval Form of Urochordata and the Adult Form?
    • Larval Form are free-swimming.
    • Adult Form are sessile.
  9. How do individuals in Urochordata eat and what is this process called?
    • Through gills
    • Filter Feeding
  10. What is an example of Cephalochordata?
    Lancelets or Amphioxus (Branchiostoma)
  11. What does "Cephalo" mean?
  12. Individuals in Branchiostoma have how many integrated, distinct components in their body?
  13. What are the two body components of individuals in Branchiostoma?
    • Somatic
    • Visceral
  14. What's another word for Somatic?
  15. What's another word for Visceral?
  16. What is the Somatic component of Branchiostoma composed of and is it segmented or unsegmented?
    Outer muscular portion; segmented
  17. What is the Visceral component of Branchiostoma composed of and is it segmented or unsegmented?
  18. What's another word for Paedomorphosis?
  19. What does Heterochrony mean?
    Different timing of different features.
  20. What does "Paedo" mean?
  21. What does "Morphosis" mean?
  22. What does Progenesis mean?
    Accelerating the gonads of an individual making it an adult although it resembles a juvenile individual.
  23. What does Neotony mean?
    Retard body growth yet gonad will develop normally resulting in a juvenile-looking individual but it is an adult.
  24. What is an example of Neotony?
  25. Why are Salamanders an example of Neotony?
    Because Salamanders retain the juvenile feature - gills - yet it CAN reproduce, making it an adult.
  26. Which is more ancestral, Cephalochordates or Urochordates?
  27. What characteristics represent Vertebrata?
    • Development of specialized heat with paired sense organs.
    • Gills used for breathing rather than feeding.
    • Muscularizationof gills and circulation.
    • Presence of endoskeletal supports for brain & gill slits (formation of Cranium).
  28. What are examples of Agnathans?
    • Extinct Ostracoderms
    • Lampreys
    • Hagfish
  29. What two components make up the Ectoderm?
    • Epidermal Placodes
    • Neural Crest
  30. What comprises the Epidermal Placodes?
    Sense Organs
  31. What comprises the Neural Crest?
    • Visceral skeleton
    • Cartilage
    • Bone
    • Sense Organs
  32. What two components comprise the Mesoderm?
    • Vertebral skeleton, increased muscularization of viscera.
    • Heart, gill muscles, active transport of food & blood.