BIOL432 Vertebrate Origins
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What does Protostome mean?
First Opening or Mouth
What does Deuterostome mean?
Second Opening or Anus
What 6 characteristics define the Phylum Chordata?
- Dorsal hollow nerve cord
- Paired pharyngeal slits
- Post-anal tail
- Segmental muscle blocks
What is the Endostyle analogous to in Humans?
What are two examples of Urochordata?
What does "Uro" mean?
Most individuals in Urochordata tend to be what kind of animals?
Sessile marine animals.
What is the main difference between the Larval Form of Urochordata and the Adult Form?
- Larval Form are free-swimming.
- Adult Form are sessile.
How do individuals in Urochordata eat and what is this process called?
- Through gills
- Filter Feeding
What is an example of Cephalochordata?
Lancelets or Amphioxus (Branchiostoma)
What does "Cephalo" mean?
Individuals in Branchiostoma have how many integrated, distinct components in their body?
What are the two body components of individuals in Branchiostoma?
What's another word for Somatic?
What's another word for Visceral?
What is the Somatic component of Branchiostoma composed of and is it segmented or unsegmented?
Outer muscular portion; segmented
What is the Visceral component of Branchiostoma composed of and is it segmented or unsegmented?
What's another word for Paedomorphosis?
What does Heterochrony mean?
Different timing of different features.
What does "Paedo" mean?
What does "Morphosis" mean?
What does Progenesis mean?
Accelerating the gonads of an individual making it an adult although it resembles a juvenile individual.
What does Neotony mean?
Retard body growth yet gonad will develop normally resulting in a juvenile-looking individual but it is an adult.
What is an example of Neotony?
Why are Salamanders an example of Neotony?
Because Salamanders retain the juvenile feature - gills - yet it CAN reproduce, making it an adult.
Which is more ancestral, Cephalochordates or Urochordates?
What characteristics represent Vertebrata?
- Development of specialized heat with paired sense organs.
- Gills used for breathing rather than feeding.
- Muscularizationof gills and circulation.
- Presence of endoskeletal supports for brain & gill slits (formation of Cranium).
What are examples of Agnathans?
- Extinct Ostracoderms
What two components make up the Ectoderm?
- Epidermal Placodes
- Neural Crest
What comprises the Epidermal Placodes?
What comprises the Neural Crest?
- Visceral skeleton
- Sense Organs
What two components comprise the Mesoderm?
- Vertebral skeleton, increased muscularization of viscera.
- Heart, gill muscles, active transport of food & blood.
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