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Typical symptoms of depressive disorders
- -Lethargy, low energy
- -Agitation, restlessness
- -Sleep (and other circadian) disturbance
- -Loss of appetite or sex drive
- -Poor self-esteem and sense of inadequacy
- -Difficulty concentrating
- -Social withdrawal
- -Loss of interest
- -Slowness, lowered activity
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)
- Characterized by significant depression and loss of function lasting at least two weeks and not caused by substance use or a general medical condition (such as hypothyroidism). DSM considers symptoms significant if at least five of the following are present:
- -depressed mood most of the time
- -markedly diminished interest or pleasure in most activities most of the time
- -significant weight loss or gain or significant appetite change
- -insomnia or hypersomnia most days
- -psychomotor agitation or retardation most of the time
- -feeling worthless/guilty most of the time
- -diminished thinking/concentration/decisiveness
- -recurring thoughts of death or suicide
For such persons, even though they lack energy and may be sleep deprived, they feel keyed up, restless, and fidgety
characterized by the presence of two affective "poles," depression and mania. The presence of mania, then, is the diagnostic distinction between Bipolar Disorder and Major Depression. Of course, in cases which manifest with depression at first, misdiagnosis is common.
Characterized by chronically depressed mood. These persons usually are not as severely depressed as those with Major Depression, but their symptoms are usually present for years (2 years is the minimum for diagnosis in adults, 1 year in children and adolescents). To appreciate this disorder, imagine that you almost never feel very good, regardless of the reason—you no doubt recognize that life will lack luster, you will often feel beaten down, and general functioning will suffer.
Related to MDD....
characterized by a relatively chronic condition in which the person struggles to maintain an even mood. The mood is both unstable and rarely neutral. Thus, affected persons are chronically up or down, experiencing mild depression or elevation similar to that of hypomania. Some evidence suggests that these persons are too dependent on external cues for their mood, such that they overreact to perceived good or bad in the environment.
Related to Bipolar disorder...
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
Depression that appears to worsen in the winter months. Also, it is more common in areas where the weather is often overcast or dreary.
Altruistic suicide, Anomic suicide and Fatalistic suicide
Altruistic: Formalized suicide approved of and even expected by some cultures
Anomic: Suicide motivated by loss and confusion cause by a major life disruption
Fatalistic: Suicide in the context of a person's hoplessness and loss of the feeling of control over his or her own destiny
Atypical depressive episode
Depressive episode characterized by some ability to experience interest and pleasure, increased anxiety, overeating and oversleeping
Bipolar Disorder (I and II)
- I: Full manic episodes
- II: Hypomanic episodes
Depressive personality disorder
Pervasive pattern dominated by dejection, self-criticism and a judgemental stance toward other people; under consideration as a future DSM category
Those with Dysthymia to experience episodes of Major Depression on top of it.
Cognitive errors seen in depressed individuals, who may automatically assume the worst, draw negative conclusions arbitrarily and treat minor problems as major ones.
Common salt used in substantial doses to treat bipolar disorder.
Period of abnormally excessive elation or euphoria associated with some mood disorders
Negative cognitive triad
- The triad involves negative thoughts about:
- 1. The self (i.e., self is worthless)
- 2. The world/environment (i.e., world is unfair)
- 3. The future (i.e., future is hopeless).
Treatment of SAD with large doses of exposure to bright light
Deficits in motor activity and coordination development
Temporal course of a bipolar disorder when transitions between mania and depression are quick, occurring four or more times in one year
Serious thoughts about committing suicide.
Unipolar mood disorder
Mood disorder characterized by depression or mania, but not both. Most cases involve unipolar depression.