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diagnosis and treatment of human response to actual and potential health problems.
Florence Nightingale 1859
1. defined nursing as both an art and a science.
2. differentiated nursing from medicine.
3. identified personal needs of patient and role of nurse in meeting them.
4. established standards for hospital management.
5. established nursing education and nursing as a RESPECTED OCCUPATION FOR WOMEN.
6. stressed the need for continuing education for nurses
7. recognized 2 components of nursing - health & illness.
8. recognized nurtrion as important to health.
9. institued occupational & recreational therapy for sick people.
10. maintained accurate records/beginning of nursing research.
ANA's Social Policy Statement 1995
- (ANA; American Nurses Association)
- nurses focus on; human experiences & response to birth, health, illness, & death.
ANA Definition 1995
describes the values and social responsibility of nursing, provides a definiton and scope of practice for nursing, dicusses nursing knowledge base, & describes methods.
Roles of the Nurse
- 1. Caregiver
- 2. Communicator
- 3. Teacher/Educator
- 4. Counselor
- 5. Leader
- 6. Researcher
- 7. Advocate
- 8. Collaborator
1. Competencies of the ADN (Associate Degree in Nursing) on entry into practice encompass the role of provider care
2. Manager of care
3. Member of the disciple of nursing
NLN 8 Essential Competencies of Graduates of Associate Degree Nursing Programs - 1990
- 1. Professional Behaviors
- 2. Communication
- 3. Assessment
- 4. Clinical Decision Making
- 5. Caring Interventions
- 6. Teaching & Learning
- 7. Collaboration
- 8. Managing Care
Process whereby programs cooperate to facilitate transfer without duplication of academic & technical coursework & involves evaluating program & course compatibility among institutions.
3 Entry Levels
- Professional development experiences designed to enrich the nurse's contribution to health.
- 1. colleges, hospitals, voluntary agencies, private groups
- 1. seminars & workshops
Nurse Practice Act
Laws established in each state in the United States, to regulate the practice of nursing.
1. Limits scope of practice.
2. Creates State Board of Nursing.
3. Defines legal scope of practice.
4. Protects the public from us.
ANA Standards of Nursing Practice
defines activities that are specific and unique to nursing. Standards allow nurses to carry out professional roles, serving as protection for the nurse, the patient, the institution where healthcare is given. (GUIDELINES).
1. Major guidelines for nursing practice.
2. Integrates the art and science of nursing .
3. Used by the nurse to identify the patient's healthcare needs and strengths
4. Establish and carry out a plan of care to meet the patient's needs
5. Evaluate the effectivness of the plan to meet established outcomes.
6. Use critical thinking when providing care that is individualized and holistic.
1. Altruism, concern for the welfare & well-being of others.
2. Autonomy; right to self-determination.
3. Human Dignity; respect for the inherent.
4. Integrity; acting in accordance with an appropriate code of ethics & accepted standards of practice.
5. Social Justice; upholding moral, legal, & humanistic principles.
1. own values
2. patient's values
3. instituion's/unit/managers/team values
Patient Care Partnership 2003
(Patient Bill of Rights)
Developed by The American Hospital Association 1972
1. Rights and responsibility of the patient receiving care.
2. Right to considerate and respectful care.
3. Right to be informed of hospital policies and practices that relate to patient care, treatment and responsibilities.
Nurse's Bill of Rights
1. Improve workplaces and ensuring nurses; ability to provide safe, quality patient care.
2. Intended to empower nurses on making clear what is non-negotiable in the workplace.
ANA Code of Ethics
p. 95 Box 6-5
Principles of Bioethics
encompassing a number of fields and disciplines grouped broadly under the rubric "the life sciences"
natural ability to behave in an ethical way because it is the right thing to do. Nurses cultivate the ability to do the scientifically right thing in response to a physiologic alteration.
ways professional competence is ensured and maintained.
educational program is evaluated & recognized as having met certain standards.
state determines that a candidate meets certain minimum requirements to practice in the profession and grants license to do so.
granted recognition in a specificed practice area.
promotion of safe environment, research, participation in shaping health policy and in patient and health systems management, and education.
A nurse who fails to initiate proper precautions to prevent patient harm is subject to the charge of negligence.
Unintentional Tort: Negligence
Performing an act that a reasonably prudent person under similar circumstances would not do, or conversely fail to perform an act.
Unintentional Tort: Malpractice
Generally used to describe negligence by professional personnel.
Intentional Tort: Assault
Threat or an attempt to make bodily contact with another person without the person's consent.
Intentional Tort: Battery
An assault that is carried out and includes willful angry, and violent or negligent touching of another person's body or clothes or anything attached to or held by that other person.
Ex: force removal of clothing, admitting a refused injection, pushing a patient to a chair
Intentional Tort: Defamation of Character
One party makes derogatory remarks about another that diminish the other party's reputation.
Intentional Tort: Invasion of Privacy HIPAA
Disclosure of confidential information.
Ex: discussing a patient's problem with a third party, unathorized interaction with the patient's family
Intentional Tort: False Imprisonment
unjustified retention or prevention of the movement of another person without proper consent.
Ex: no warrant to restrain a patient, can't be legally forced to stay in a health agency
Intentional Tort: Fraud
willful and purposeful misrepresentation that could cause, or has caused, loss or harm to a person or property.
Ex: misrepresenting yourself to obtain a nursing license.
Liability: 4 elements
Proves that malpractice and negligence has occured.
- 1. Duty; obligation to due care.
- 2. Breach of Duty; failure to meet standard care.
- 3. Causation; most difficult to prove, shows the failure to meet standar care actually caused the injury.
- 4. Damages; actual harm or injury resulting to the patient.
Professional Insurance/Student Liability
Nurses are obligated ethically and legally to report abuse. Nurses are protected by the law from a filed report of suspected abuse.
attempted adherence to basic ethical principles results in two conflicting course of action.