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What is the etymological definition "Philosophy?'
- Philos menaing love
- sophia meaning wisdom
Who is the fater of philosophy? what makes him the father of Philosophy?
Thales is the father of Philosoy
The first scientific philosopher
The first philosopher to explain reality through "logos"
Who is the fater of modern Philosophy?
Who is the father of ethics or moral philosophy? What makes him the father of ethics?
Socrates Because his questions are related to ethics not metaphysics.
Differentiate Mythos from Logos
Mythos is fictional, irrational, illogical, spiritual, phenomenal, unscientific.
Logos fictional, scientific, logical, rational, wahy of explainning things.
Differentiate "true knowledge'' (wisdom) from "fake knowledge.
- True Knowledge (wisdom)
- is when a person knowns what is good and applies it in his or her life.
- Fake Knowledge
- is when a person knowns what is good or bad but does not apply it in his or her life.
Know the Pre Socratics basic ideas:
Thales- said that whater is the basic element, everything is made of water, everything comes from water. monistic materialist philosopher and is a metaphysicist philosopher.
Anaximenes- believed that air is the basic element of the world.
Democritus- "atoms" indivisible and invisible- are the basic elements of the world.
Heraclitus- ''you cannot step into the same river twice'' because other water are continuously flowing. there is nothing permanent in this world except change. change is permanence. permanence is change.
Parmenides- monistic idealist philosopher. change is an illusion. there is no such thaing as change as far as looking beyone the physical, material reality. 'not only can you not step into the smae river ....FINISH
What do the following branches of philosophy mean?
studies about eh physical material reality.
Special Metaphysics/ theodicy-
studies beyone the physical material reality. studies the spiritual, nonmaterial aspect of reality.
- Epistemology- comes from 2 worlds. Episeme and logos...together combined mean The Study of knowledge.
- - ask questions like: where does knowledge come from? can we possibly attain certainty of knowledge/truth/reality?
- Aniology (ethics and Aesthetics)
- Aesthetics- the philosophy of beauty and art. beauty is relative' its dependent on ones perception or sensation.
- ethics- ''ethos" greek word. norm or standard of living. habit.
Differentiate deductive from inductive reasoning. Give an example of each type of reasoning.
- Deductive reasoning- a type of reasoning that srarts from a universal premise and from which a specific conclusion is drawn.
- - all men are mortal, Socrats is a man, therefore Socrates is a mortal.
- Inductive Reasoning- A type of reasoning that starts from specific instances and from which a universal conclusion is drawn.
- -the water in US, china, canada, russia is water. so this must mean that water is composed of H2O.
Contrast Logic from Fallacy
-Logic is the science and art of correct thinking and reasoning.
-Fallacy is the exact opposite of Logic, incorrect invalid fallacious reasoning.
Contrast rationalism from Empiricism
-Rationalism is a theory in epistemology which holds that knowledge comes from pure reasoning/thing. Reason goes beyone experience because reason "knows" even if it does not experience.
-Empiricism is a theory in epistemology which holds that knowledge comes from experiences.
Contrast agnosticism from atheism
-athiesm: no God, A philosophical idea that denies gods existence.
-Agnosticism: No knowledge about the existence or the non existence of God.
Contrast relativism from absolutism
Contrast ethical subjectivism from cultural relativism/conventionalism.
Ethical subjectivism- an ethical theory that holds that ethics dependent on what one personally feels is right or wrong. This is the same thing as saying "what i think is right" and "What i think is wrong, wrong."
-Cultural relativism/conventionalism: An ethical theory which contends that morality or ethics is relative to or dependent on the culture or norm of a specific group of people.
Contrast Monism from dualism
Monism- the belief in one reality
Dualism- the belief in two realities, Physical and Spiritual.
Contrast monistic materialism from monistic idealism.
monistic materialism- belief that only material, physical, measureable, things are real.
monistic idealism- belief only "ideas", spiritual, nonmaterial things are real.
Contrast pluralism from nihilism.
Pluralism- contrasts that there is neither one or two realities but there are many realities.
Nihlism or "nihil" means nothing, the philosophy of the nothing.
Contrast argumentation from debate
Argumentum- is open ended, non polarized, its goal is to attain certainty of knowledge/truth/reality.
Debate- is close ended, Polarized, goal is to win no matter what.
What are important key points in Socrates "euthyphro"
Contrast Plato's World of being/ideas from world of becoming/ shadoows
-Worth of being/ideas: spiritual, nonmaterial world, infinite, immortal, immutable reality, the incorruptible world, the perfect world.
-World of becoming/Shadows: Physical, material world, the physical, mortal and mutable world, the corruptible world, the imperfect world.
Contrast Plato's idea of fake love and real love
fake love- is that which is dependent on something physical or material in nature.
real love or platonic love- is that which is dependent on something spiritual or non material in nature.
Explain Plato's innate idea or imborn knowledge
Innate idea or Inborn knowledge means that we had it / knew it in our previous life but we just forgot it.
Explain Plato's "recollection"
Recollection means to recall what we already know using pure reasoning/ thinking and not through bodily senses, because senses are prone to mistakes.
What method did Descartes use in attaining certainty of knowledge?
he used absolute skepticism to attain ceratinty of knowledge.
What is the purpose of Descartes absolute skepticism ?
the purpose of using absolute skepticism was to attain Certainty of knowledge.
What makes Plato great?
- -religion race back to plato's philosophy.
- -wrote almost all branches of philosophy, except logic.
- -after plato the rest of western philosophy is just a series of footnotes. ...whitehead.
Plato's three parts of the soul and its characteristics.
- 1. Reason
- the divine essence which makes logical, rational moral choices.
- 2. Passion and Emotion
- the spirited self/ love and the emotional self
- 3. Appetite
- the physical, material sensual part.
The key points in Plato's Euthyphro
the use of the socratic method or socratic dialogue as a form of argumentation and not a debate.
against the ethical relativism and proposes universal moral idea.