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which additives cause the least and most interference due to cross over
heparin is the least and EDTA causes the most problems due to cross over of additive from one tube to another.
what is a requisition
form on which the test orders are entered
the process of recording in the order received. to accession a specimen means to connect it with the paperwork and individual
determine the size, direction, path and depth of the vain
clean the site in
the needle sheath is
the needle cap or cover
insertion angle for shallow or deeper veins
15 degrees for shallow, and 30 for deep veins
angle of entry for butterfly needle
what is reflux?
blood in tube is in contact with the needle and can go back into the vein if a change in the pressure of the vein occurs. This can cause adverse reactions due to additives
label the tubes with
- patients first and last name
- MRN and DOB
- Date and time of collection
- phlebotomist initials
- other pertinent information like fasting
how long does it take for a local anesthetic (EMLA) take to work
1 hour for 5 mm in depth
basal state refers to
the resting metabolic state (early morning after fasting 12 hours)
blood components cannot easily leave the bloodstreem and become concentrated in the smaller plasma volume.
abnormally raised lipids in blood
is related to lipemia causing the plasma to appear milky.
why not draw blood from the same side of a patient's body who had a mastectomy?
the lymph node is typically removed as part of the procedure and drawing blood can cause lymphostasis. (lymphostasis creates errors in tests too).
obstruction or stoppage of normal lymph flow and can result in swelling and infection
when drawing blood from someone on a heparin or saline lock (catheter or cannula connected to a stopcock/cap)....
discard the first 5-mL of blood, because it provides access for administering medication and heparin sticks to the tube.
what do you do in a patient IV in both arms, so you can't draw from the arm without it?
- 1) collect via capillary
- 2) collect from below the IV
drawing blood from an indwelling line or central vascular access device (CVAD)
2 times the dead-space (usually 5 mL) volume of the line or tubing. coagulation tests are avoided on CVAD lines.
symptoms of fainting
pallor (paleness), perspiration, and hyperventilation, spinning, dizziness, light-headedness, or nausea.
patient must remain in the area for 15 minutes and be asked not to operate machinery for 30 minutes
what do you do if a patient vomits during the procedure
the procedure must be terminated immediately.
what is probing
excessive, deep, blind, or lateral redirecting and should never be attempted.
extreme pain, numbness of the arm, burning or electric-shock sensation or pain that radiates up or down the arm indicates...
nerve involvement and the needle should be removed. Contact a physician if pain persists
what do you do if a hematoma forms during collection
discontinue the draw immediately, and put pressure on the site for 2 minutes
where more than 10% of the patient's blood volume is removed to the point where life cannot be sustained.
what are the effects of prolonged tourniquet use
cholesterol levels increase up to 5% after 2 minutes and 15% after 5 minutes
effects of hand pumping
increases potassium levels up to 20 %
rupturing of RBC's
hemolysis or hemolyzed blood makes serum or plasma appear pink.
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