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  1. Individual level of analysis
    Examines such issues as the personality, perceptions, attitudes, motivation, and values of people
  2. Group Level of analysis
    Examines such issues as group roles, group norms, conformity, and status
  3. Organizational level of analysis
    Examines such issues as organizational structure, decision making, authority, reporting relationships, and span of control
  4. Environment
    All of the external forces that impact individuals, groups, and organizations
  5. System
    The set of interrelated or interacting elements that form an entity, such as the solar system, the human body, the public transportation for a city, or a clock
  6. Open social system
    A system that is open to the environment in the sense that it depends on the environment to obtain resources and consume its products. All organizations are open social systems
  7. Patterned Activities
    The relatively stable and predictable events that continue to occur with consistency and regularity. These enduring activities are the basic elements that form an organization
  8. Negative Entropy
    While entropy refers to the dissolution or wearing down of energy and resources and moving to a state of balance, neg. entropy refers to the reversal of this process and allows for the growth and increase in available energy and resources
  9. Differentiation
    The process of creating a division of labor by creating specialized functions that are performed by different people and departments
  10. Integration
    The process of coordinating all of the various specialized functions and events so that a system can continue to operate smoothly
  11. Procurment Subsystem
    Acquires energy and resources from the external environment
  12. Production Subsystem
    The operations and activities that produce the product or service of the organization
  13. Distribution Subsystem
    The activities that are involved in delivering the organization's products or services to the next users in the values chain, such as customers or purchasers
  14. Human Resources Subsytem
    The activities associated with selecting employees and motivating them to continue to participate in the organization, especially eveluating and rewarding performance.
  15. Adaptive Subsystem
    The activities associated with making adaptive changes in the organization or its products, especially research and development activities
  16. Managerial Subsystem
    The decision-making activites associated with directing and supervising the events within an organization
  17. Value Chain
    Organizations are linked together in a value chain to produce their products and services. Each organization receives inputs from organizations upstream, adds value to them, and passes them on to downstream organizations
  18. Boundary-spanning activities
    Occur between one org. and other org. in its environment, such as purchasing new materials, gathering consumer information, evaluating customenr satisfaction, and merchandising the products
  19. Institutional Function
    Activities that help an org. to be accepted within its environment, such as public relations, lobbying, and protective legislation
  20. Consensual Validation
    Refers to a common belief that is so widely shared that most memvers accept it as true, even though it may not match their personal feelings
  21. Efficiency
    A measure of how well the org. translates inputs to outputs
  22. Effectiveness
    A measure of how well an org. can convert inputs into outputs and then recycle them within the environment to produce new inputs
  23. Resource Acquisition Approach
    Measuring orgzl effectiveness in terms of how many resources it can attract
  24. Transfomation Approach
    Measuring orgzl effectiveness by how efficiently it converts inputs into outputs
  25. Output approach
    Measuring orgzl effectiveness in terms of how many products and services it produces
  26. Recycling Approach
    An overall measure of orgzl effectiveness that assesses how well the org is able to convert inputs into outputs and translate them into new resources to repeat the cycle
  27. Constituency Approach
    • A measure of orgzl effectiveness that is based on how well it serves its stakeholders
    • -Employees,Owners, Customers,Suppliers, Creditors, Community, Government
  28. Organizational Abuse
    Orgzl policies or events that injure or mistreat employees even though they are neautral and not intended to create harm
  29. Purpose Behind Analyzing Orgs
    • 1. To describe what happened
    • 2. To explain why it happened
    • 3. To control it in the future
  30. Experiential Learning
    Learning that comes from analyzing and observing everyday experiences
  31. Theory
    A statement of functional relationships that helps us explain what is happening in the world we observe
  32. Paradigm Shift
    A new way of thinking about a situation or problem, using different assumptions and models
  33. Hypothesis
    A provsional statement decscribing the potential relationship between two or more variables that we can test
  34. Constructs
    Words and concepts that help us identify the phenomena we want to study
  35. Operational Definition
    Defining a construct by specifying the operation or activity involved in measuring it.
  36. Observational Studies
    Case studies that are based on the careful observations of the events and relationships that we see transpire
  37. Field Studies
    Research studies that involve collecting data from people in actual work settings and examining the relationships between the variables that are measured
  38. Field Experiments
    Research studies that occur in natural work situations in which an independent variable is changed and its effects on one or more dependent variables are assessed
  39. Labratory Experiments
    A research study that is conducted in a behavioral science lab that serves to control extraneous variables while the effects of an independent variable are assessed regarding its impact on one or more dependent variables
  40. Hawthorne Effect
    When people alter how they behave as a result of knowing that they are being observed or evaluated
  41. Nondirective Interviews
    Encourage the person to openly share ideas and determine the flow of the discussion rather than following a scheduled list of questions
  42. Patterned Interviews
    An interview that follows a predetermined list of interview questions
  43. Unobtrusive Measures
    Measures of behavior that are obtained without the participants knowing that their bahavior is being evaluated. Often these measures are indirect indications of behavior.
Card Set:
2011-08-31 16:30:28

Chapter 1 Terms
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