Card Set Information
Study Cards for Psychology Chapter 1
Modern psychology is the scientific study of-
Human and animal behavior and mental processes.
Psychology is a science because-
: It uses observation and testing (scientific method)
: Synthesis and analysis of info and suspension of personal opinion.
Psychics, mediums, etc. Notable pseudopsychologies are
: Franz Gall - Study of bumps in the skull as ways to determine intelligence and personality - lead to mapping of areas in the brain and their functions.
: Franz Mesmer - Forerunner of hypnosis.
4 Goals of Psychology-
To describe, explain, predict, and change behavior and mental process through the use of the scientific method.
Degrees awarded by subfields in psychology-
Origins of psychology (1879)-
Wilhelm Wundt (Germany)
"Father of psychology"
Interested in how we form sensations, images, and feelings.
Tried to identify basic building blocks, or structures, of mental life through introspection and then to determine how these elements combine to form the whole of experience.
Introspection was limited, could not be used to study animals, children, or serious mental disorders.
William James was leading force.
Studied how the mind functions to adapt humans and other animals to their enviroments.
Strongly influenced by Darwin.
7 Major Perspectives-
: Unconscious processes and unresolves past conflict.
: Objective, observable enviromental influences in overt behavior.
: Free-will, self-actualization, and human nature as naturally positive and growth-seeking.
: Thinking, percieving, problem solving, memory, language, and information processing.
: Genetics and biological processes in the brain and nervous system.
: Natural selection, adaptaion, and evolution of behavior and mental processes.
: Social interaction and the cultural determinants of behavior and mental processes.
Women and minorities-
: First female president of the APA.
: First female to recieve a Ph.D. in psychology.
: First black to recieve Ph.D. in psychology.
Kenneth and Mamie Clark
: Their research into harmful effect of prejudice influenced Supreme Courts ruling against segregation.
Basic research vs applied research-
: Research done to advance scientific knowledge.
: Designed to solve practical problems.
The 6 steps of the scientific method!
: Read published info on subject of interest.
Testable hypothesis, operationally defined
: Make testable hypothesis, and state variables in precise measurable terms.
: Chose best way to test hypothesis and collect data.
: Analysis on raw data to determine if it supports or rejects hypothesis. Organize, summarize, and interpret data.
Peer-reviewed scientific journal
: Write study and results and submit to journal for critical evaluation.
: After one or more studies on a topic a theory to explain results is made, possibly leading to new hypothesis.
: Participants agreement to partake in a study after being told what to expect.
: Informing participants after study about purpose of study, nature of results, and any deception used.
: Identifies cause/effect. Allows contol over variables. Ethical concerns and artifical conditions.
: Observation, surveys, case studies. Minimizes artificiality, easier to get data. Little control over variables.
: Statistical analysis of relationship b/w variables. Helps clarify relationships and predict. Cannot identify cause and effect.
: Study of brain and nervous system. Many advantages of other 3 methods. Same with disadvantages.
SQ4R Method for reading actively (6 Steps)-
: Skim, note titles of chapters, sections.
: Write down questions you want answered.
: Focus, look for answers to your questions.
: Summarize short sections into your own words, comapre to text.
: Go over your questions, and any review questions at the end of the chapter.
: Write a final summary in your own words.