PsychologyChapter1.txt

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ax314314
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99190
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PsychologyChapter1.txt
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2011-08-31 13:46:48
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Psychology
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Study Cards for Psychology Chapter 1
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  1. Modern psychology is the scientific study of-
    Human and animal behavior and mental processes.
  2. Psychology is a science because-
    • Empirical evidence: It uses observation and testing (scientific method)
    • Critical thinking: Synthesis and analysis of info and suspension of personal opinion.
  3. Pseudopsychologies include-
    • Psychics, mediums, etc. Notable pseudopsychologies are
    • Phrenology: Franz Gall - Study of bumps in the skull as ways to determine intelligence and personality - lead to mapping of areas in the brain and their functions.
    • Mesmerism: Franz Mesmer - Forerunner of hypnosis.
  4. 4 Goals of Psychology-
    To describe, explain, predict, and change behavior and mental process through the use of the scientific method.
  5. Degrees awarded by subfields in psychology-
    • Clinical
    • Counseling
    • Eduational
    • Experimental
    • Industrial
  6. Origins of psychology (1879)-
    • Wilhelm Wundt (Germany)
    • "Father of psychology"
    • Interested in how we form sensations, images, and feelings.
  7. Structuralism is-
    • Edward Titchener
    • Tried to identify basic building blocks, or structures, of mental life through introspection and then to determine how these elements combine to form the whole of experience.
    • Introspection was limited, could not be used to study animals, children, or serious mental disorders.
    • Structuralism failed.
  8. Functionalism-
    • William James was leading force.
    • Studied how the mind functions to adapt humans and other animals to their enviroments.
    • Strongly influenced by Darwin.
  9. 7 Major Perspectives-
    • Psychoanalytic/psychodynamic: Unconscious processes and unresolves past conflict.
    • Behavioral: Objective, observable enviromental influences in overt behavior.
    • Humanistic: Free-will, self-actualization, and human nature as naturally positive and growth-seeking.
    • Cognitive: Thinking, percieving, problem solving, memory, language, and information processing.
    • Neuroscientific/Biopsychological: Genetics and biological processes in the brain and nervous system.
    • Evolutionary: Natural selection, adaptaion, and evolution of behavior and mental processes.
    • Socialcultural: Social interaction and the cultural determinants of behavior and mental processes.
  10. Women and minorities-
    • Mary Calkins: First female president of the APA.
    • Margaret Washburn: First female to recieve a Ph.D. in psychology.
    • Francis Sumner: First black to recieve Ph.D. in psychology.
    • Kenneth and Mamie Clark: Their research into harmful effect of prejudice influenced Supreme Courts ruling against segregation.
  11. Basic research vs applied research-
    • Basic research: Research done to advance scientific knowledge.
    • Applied research: Designed to solve practical problems.
  12. The 6 steps of the scientific method!
    • Literature Review: Read published info on subject of interest.
    • Testable hypothesis, operationally defined: Make testable hypothesis, and state variables in precise measurable terms.
    • Research Design: Chose best way to test hypothesis and collect data.
    • Statistical Analysis: Analysis on raw data to determine if it supports or rejects hypothesis. Organize, summarize, and interpret data.
    • Peer-reviewed scientific journal: Write study and results and submit to journal for critical evaluation.
    • Theory: After one or more studies on a topic a theory to explain results is made, possibly leading to new hypothesis.
  13. APA guidelines:
    • Informed consent: Participants agreement to partake in a study after being told what to expect.
    • Debriefing: Informing participants after study about purpose of study, nature of results, and any deception used.
  14. Research methods-
    • Experimental: Identifies cause/effect. Allows contol over variables. Ethical concerns and artifical conditions.
    • Descriptive: Observation, surveys, case studies. Minimizes artificiality, easier to get data. Little control over variables.
    • Correlation: Statistical analysis of relationship b/w variables. Helps clarify relationships and predict. Cannot identify cause and effect.
    • Biological: Study of brain and nervous system. Many advantages of other 3 methods. Same with disadvantages.
  15. SQ4R Method for reading actively (6 Steps)-
    • Survey: Skim, note titles of chapters, sections.
    • Question: Write down questions you want answered.
    • Read: Focus, look for answers to your questions.
    • Recite: Summarize short sections into your own words, comapre to text.
    • Review: Go over your questions, and any review questions at the end of the chapter.
    • wRite: Write a final summary in your own words.

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