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Modern psychology is the scientific study of-
Human and animal behavior and mental processes.
Psychology is a science because-
- Empirical evidence: It uses observation and testing (scientific method)
- Critical thinking: Synthesis and analysis of info and suspension of personal opinion.
- Psychics, mediums, etc. Notable pseudopsychologies are
- Phrenology: Franz Gall - Study of bumps in the skull as ways to determine intelligence and personality - lead to mapping of areas in the brain and their functions.
- Mesmerism: Franz Mesmer - Forerunner of hypnosis.
4 Goals of Psychology-
To describe, explain, predict, and change behavior and mental process through the use of the scientific method.
Degrees awarded by subfields in psychology-
Origins of psychology (1879)-
- Wilhelm Wundt (Germany)
- "Father of psychology"
- Interested in how we form sensations, images, and feelings.
- Edward Titchener
- Tried to identify basic building blocks, or structures, of mental life through introspection and then to determine how these elements combine to form the whole of experience.
- Introspection was limited, could not be used to study animals, children, or serious mental disorders.
- Structuralism failed.
- William James was leading force.
- Studied how the mind functions to adapt humans and other animals to their enviroments.
- Strongly influenced by Darwin.
7 Major Perspectives-
- Psychoanalytic/psychodynamic: Unconscious processes and unresolves past conflict.
- Behavioral: Objective, observable enviromental influences in overt behavior.
- Humanistic: Free-will, self-actualization, and human nature as naturally positive and growth-seeking.
- Cognitive: Thinking, percieving, problem solving, memory, language, and information processing.
- Neuroscientific/Biopsychological: Genetics and biological processes in the brain and nervous system.
- Evolutionary: Natural selection, adaptaion, and evolution of behavior and mental processes.
- Socialcultural: Social interaction and the cultural determinants of behavior and mental processes.
Women and minorities-
- Mary Calkins: First female president of the APA.
- Margaret Washburn: First female to recieve a Ph.D. in psychology.
- Francis Sumner: First black to recieve Ph.D. in psychology.
- Kenneth and Mamie Clark: Their research into harmful effect of prejudice influenced Supreme Courts ruling against segregation.
Basic research vs applied research-
- Basic research: Research done to advance scientific knowledge.
- Applied research: Designed to solve practical problems.
The 6 steps of the scientific method!
- Literature Review: Read published info on subject of interest.
- Testable hypothesis, operationally defined: Make testable hypothesis, and state variables in precise measurable terms.
- Research Design: Chose best way to test hypothesis and collect data.
- Statistical Analysis: Analysis on raw data to determine if it supports or rejects hypothesis. Organize, summarize, and interpret data.
- Peer-reviewed scientific journal: Write study and results and submit to journal for critical evaluation.
- Theory: After one or more studies on a topic a theory to explain results is made, possibly leading to new hypothesis.
- Informed consent: Participants agreement to partake in a study after being told what to expect.
- Debriefing: Informing participants after study about purpose of study, nature of results, and any deception used.
- Experimental: Identifies cause/effect. Allows contol over variables. Ethical concerns and artifical conditions.
- Descriptive: Observation, surveys, case studies. Minimizes artificiality, easier to get data. Little control over variables.
- Correlation: Statistical analysis of relationship b/w variables. Helps clarify relationships and predict. Cannot identify cause and effect.
- Biological: Study of brain and nervous system. Many advantages of other 3 methods. Same with disadvantages.
SQ4R Method for reading actively (6 Steps)-
- Survey: Skim, note titles of chapters, sections.
- Question: Write down questions you want answered.
- Read: Focus, look for answers to your questions.
- Recite: Summarize short sections into your own words, comapre to text.
- Review: Go over your questions, and any review questions at the end of the chapter.
- wRite: Write a final summary in your own words.
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