CH. 5 PSYCHOLOGY VOCABULARY

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viggianoa
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9920
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CH. 5 PSYCHOLOGY VOCABULARY
Updated:
2010-03-11 10:19:03
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CH 5 PSYCHOLOGY VOCABULARY PATHWAYS TO PSYCHOLOGY
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CH. 5 PSYCHOLOGY IN PATHWAYS TO PSYCHOLOGY
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  1. LEARNING
    ANY RELATIVELY PERMANENT CHANGE IN THE BEHAVIOR, THOUGHTS, OR FEELINGS OF AN INDIVIDUAL THAT RESULTS FROM EXPERIENCE
  2. HABITUATION
    A PHENOMENON IN WHICH A PERSON GRADUALLY BECOMES MORE FAMILIAR WITH A STIMULUS AND NOTICES IT LESS AND LESS
  3. DISHABITUATION
    A ONCE FAMILIAR STIMULUS CHANGES TO BECOME UNFAMILIAR, SO THE PERSON NOTICES THE STIMULUS ONCE AGAIN
  4. INSTINCT
    AN INHERITED SPECIES-SPECIFIC; STEREOTYPED, AND OFTEN RELATIVELY COMPLEX PATTERN OF BEHAVIOR
  5. IMPRINTING
    A PREPROGRAMMED RESPONSE IN WHICH A NEWBORN ANIMAL LOOKS FOR A PARTICULAR KIND OF STIMULUS AN THEN CARRIES OUT THE RESPONSE; THE SPECIFIC STIMULUS THAT PROMPTS THE RESPONSE IS LEARNED
  6. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
    THE LEARNING PROCESS WHEREBY AN ORGINIALLY NEUTRAL STIMULUS BECOMES ASSOCIATED WITH A PARTICULAR PHYSIOLOGICAL OR EMOTIONAL RESPONSE THAT THE STIMULUS DID NOT ORGINIALLY PRODUCE
  7. UNCONDITIONAL STIMULUS (US)
    A STIMULUS THAT ELICITS A PHYSIOLOGICAL OR EMOTIONAL RESPONSE
  8. UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE (UR)
    AN AUTOMATIC PHYSIOLOGICAL OR EMOTIONAL RESPONSE TO A (US)
  9. CONDITIONED STIMULUS (CS)
    AN ORIGINALLY NEUTRAL STIMULUS THAT LATER WILL ELICIT A PHYSIOLOGICAL OR EMOTIONAL RESPONSE
  10. CONDITIONED RESPONSE (CR)
    A RESPONSE THAT IS SIMILAR TO THE (UR), BUT THAT IS ELICITED FROM THE (CS) RATHER THAN FROM THE (US)
  11. CONTINGENCY
    A PHENOMENON IN WHICH ONE OR MORE STIMULI DEPEND ON THE PRESENCE OF ANOTHER STIMULUS
  12. ACQUISITION
    A PAHSE OF LEARNING WHICH THE PROBABILITY OF LEARNING INCREASES
  13. EXTINCTION
    A PHASE OF LEARNING WHEN THE PROBABILITY OF THE CR DECREASES OVER TIME EVENTUALLY APPROACHING ZERO
  14. STIMULUS GENERALIZATION
    A RESPONSE TO THE OBSERVED SIMILARITY OF A STIMULUS TO THE CS, WHICH INCREASES THE LIKELIHOOD THAT THE CR WILL OCCUR FOLLOWING PRESENTATION OF THE STIMULUS
  15. STIMULUS DISCRIMMINATION
    A RESPONSE TO THE OBSERVED DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A NEW STIMULUS AND THE ORGINIAL CS, WHICH MAKES IT LESS LIKELY THAT THE NEW STIMULUS WILL LEAD TO THE CR
  16. OPERANT CONDITIONING
    THE PROCESS OF INCREASING OR DECREASING THE LIKELEHOOD THAT AN INDIVIDUAL WILL PRODUCE AN ACTIVE BEHAVIOR (AN OPERANT) AS A RESULT OF INTERACTING WITH THE ENVIRONMENT
  17. OPERANT
    A KIND OF RESPONSE THAT HAS SOME EFFECT ON THE WORLD
  18. REINFORCER
    A STIMULUS EVENT THAT INCREASES THE PROBABILITY THAT THE OPERANT ASSOCIATED WITH IT WILL BE REPEATED
  19. POSITIVE REINFORCER
    A POSITIVE STIMULUS EVENT THAT FOLLOWS AN OPERANT AND STRENGHTHENS THE ASSOCIATED BEHAVIORAL RESPONSE
  20. POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT
    THE EFFECT OF A POSITIVE REINFORCEER (STIMULUS EVENT) SOON AFTER AN OPERANT (RESPONSE)
  21. NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT
    THE EFFECT OF THE REMOVAL OR CESSATION, STOPPING, OF AN UNPLEASENT STIMULUS, SUCH AS PHYSICAL OR PSYCHOLOGICAL PAIN OR DISCOMFORT
  22. NEGATIVE REINFORCER
    AN UNPLEASENT STIMULUS EVENT THAT IS REMOVED FOLLOWING AN OPERANT RESPONSE, THEREBY LEADING TO AN INCREASED PROBABILITY THAT THE OPERANT WILL BE REPEATED
  23. PUNISHMENT
    THE EFFECT OF THE DELIVERY OF A STIMULUS EVENT THAT DECREASES THE PROBABILITY OF AN ASSOCIATED RESPONSE; RESULTS FROM EITHER PRESENTING AN UNPLEASENT STIMULUS OR REMOVING A PLEASENT ONE
  24. AVERSION CONDITIONING
    THE USE OF PUNISHMENT AS A MEANS OF ENCOURAGING AN INDIVIDUAL TO TRY TO ESCAPE FROM OR TO AVOID A SITUATION
  25. AVOIDENCE LEARNING
    THE GOAL OF CONDITIONING; AN INDIVIDUAL LEARNS TO STAY AWAY FROM SOMETHING
  26. LEARNED HELPLESSNESS
    A LEARNED BEHAVIOR IN WHICH AN INDIVIDUAL GIVES UP TRYING TO ESCAPE FROM A PAINFUL SITUATION AFTER REPEATEDLY FAILING TO ESCAPE
  27. GRADIENT OF REINFORCEMENT
    A PHENOMENON IN WHICH INCREASES IN THE LENGHTH OF TIME BETWEEN AN OPERANT AND A REINFORCER DIRECTLY DECREASE THE EFFECT OF THE REINFORCEMENT
  28. PRIMARY REINFORCER
    A STIMULUS THAT PROVIDES AN IMMEDIATE REINFORCEMENT THAT SATISFIES THE SENSES
  29. SECONDARY REINFORCER
    A STIMULUS THAT GAINS REINFORCING VALUE THROUGH ASSOCIATION WITH A PRIMARY REINFORCER
  30. SHAPE
    BRING BEHAVIOR UNDER CONTROL BY PROVIDING A PROGRAM OF REINFORCEMENT
  31. SUCCESIVE APPROXIMATIONS
    A METHOD FOR SHAPING BEHAVIOR BY GRADUALLY REINFORCING OPERANTS THAT ARE INCREASINGLY MORE SIMILAR TO THE DESIRED BEHAVIOR
  32. CONTINUOUS REINFORCEMENT
    A LEARNING PROGRAM IN WHICH REINFORCEMENT ALWAYS FOLLOWS A PARTICULAR OPERANT BEHAVIOR
  33. SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT
    THE PATTERNS BY WHICH REINFORCEMENTS FOLLOW OPERANTS
  34. PARTIAL REINFORCEMENT SCHEDULE
    AN OPERANT CONDITIONING PROGRAM IN WHICH A GIVEN OPERANT IS REINFORCED AT SOME TIMES BUT NOT AT OTHER TIMES
  35. SOCIAL LEARNING
    THE LEARNING THAT OCCURS BY OBSERVING THE BEHAVIOR OF OTHERS, AS WELL AS BY OBSERVING ANY ENVIROMENTAL OUTCOMES OF THE BEHAVIOR

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