Comparative Anatomy test# 1

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mc166589
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Comparative Anatomy test# 1
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2011-09-12 10:35:06
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ComparativeAnatomy
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Lecture test one.
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  1. Eygyptian embalming guides date back to what year?
    3000 BCE
  2. What was the name of the historical Roman physician that lived in 165-200 CE?
    Galen
  3. What literary work did Vesalius publish in 1543?
    De humani corporis fabrica (on the structure of the human body)
  4. Who published a work that compared bird and human skeleton in 1555?
    Pierre Belon du Mans
  5. What was the original concept of homology?
    Structures in two different animals that develop in the same way from the same type of embryonic precursor.
  6. What are homologous structures?
    equivalent structures between different organisms derived through inheritance from a common ancestor.
  7. What does the term organic evolution mean?
    Change in the genetic composition of a population from generation to generation.
  8. Define natural selection.
    The sum of all enviornmental fators that determine the relative success of different genotypes.
  9. Define adaptation.
    Any development, behavioral, anitomical, or physiological characteristic that increases chances of surviving and producing descendants.
  10. Natural selection is _________.
    Opportunistic
  11. How are new species formed?
    Populations genetically diverge to the point that individuals in each population can no longer successfully interbreed.
  12. Define phylogeny.
    Relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their evolutionary history.
  13. What does the word Homology refer to?
    Structures evolved from a common ancesttral orgin, even through the function may not be the same.
  14. What does the term parallelism mean? (parallel evolution)
    Seperate evolution of similar characteristics in lineages that are related.
  15. What does the term convergence mean? (convergent evolution)
    Seperate evolution of similar characters in lineages that are not of common ancestry.
  16. What does the word Analogy refer to?
    Structures that serve the same function but are not evolutionarily derived from a common ancestor.
  17. Who is refered to as the "father of biological classification"?
    Aristotale
  18. Who is refered to as the "father of taxonomy"?
    Linnaeus
  19. Who published Systemae Naturae in 1758?
    Linnaeus
  20. What is taxonomy?
    Study and practice of classifying organisms into related groups.
  21. What is systematics?
    Study of kinds and diversity of organisms and the relationships amoung them.
  22. What is phylogenetics?
    Study of relationships of groups based on their evolutionary history.
  23. Name the four subphyla in phylum Chordata.
    • - Cephalochordata (head cord)
    • - Urochordata (tail chord)
    • - Hemichordata (half chord)
    • - Vertebrata (backboned animals)
  24. Name the two general characteristics of phylum Chordata.
    • - Bilateral symmetry
    • - Regional differentiation
  25. Name the three defining characteristics of phylum Chordata.
    • - Notochord
    • - Pharyngeal gill slits
    • - Hollow dorsal nerve chord
  26. Name the nine satelite characteristics of phylum Chordata.
    • 1. Coelom
    • 2. Digestive System
    • 3. Excretory System
    • 4. Reproductive System
    • 5. True Endoskeleton
    • 6. Closed Circulatory
    • 7. Skin
    • 8. Paired Append
    • 9. Segmentation
  27. List the information about Cephalochordata.
    • - Shallow, salt water burrowers
    • - Notochord extends into the head region.
    • - pharynx highly modified for feeding.
  28. List the information about Urochordata.
    - Adults are sessile filter feeders with little resemblance to vertebrates but larval forms have typical chordate characteristics.
  29. List the information about Hemichordata.
    • - Notochord
    • - Burrowers
    • - Hemichordate larvae are very similar to Echinoderm (Starfish) larvae.
  30. What is the subkingdom applied to all multicellular animals except sponges?
    Metazoa
  31. Why are Cnidarians considered to have given rise to all other metazoans?
    Because of thier absence of a middle body layer. (Mesoderm)
  32. What is the arguments for annelid/arachnid ancestory?
    • 1. Bilateral symmetry.
    • 2. Segmentation.
    • 3. Enlarged brain.
  33. What are the arguments against Annelid/ Arachnid for the ancestory of chordates?
    • 1. segmentation is complete
    • 2. nerve chord is ventral
    • 3. mesoderm formation is Schizocoelous
  34. What is a tissue?
    it is composed of many cells, similar in structure and function, bound together by intercellular matrix material.
  35. What is an organ?
    it is composed of tissues (Which are not necessarily similar) grouped together in a structural/funcitonal unit.
  36. What is an organ system?
    it is a group of interacting organs that cooperate as a functional complex.
  37. What are the characteristics of epithelial tissue?
    it covers or lining of all free body surfaces.

    cells packed tightly together, little intercellular space

    one surface is exposed to the open

    free ends bear structures like hairs, microvilli, cilia,mucous secretions, etc.
  38. What are the three different types of layers of epithilial tissues?
    simple

    stratified

    pseudostratified
  39. What are the three different types of epithelial tissues?
    squamous

    cuboidal

    columnar
  40. What are the three different types of glands?
    Merocrine gland

    Apocrine gland

    Holocrine gland
  41. How are the types of glands classified?
    They are classified based on their fate after cell secretion.
  42. What are the characteristics of Merocrine glands?
    No harm comes to the cell after secretion. (Sweat and wax glands)
  43. What are the characteristics of Apocrine glands?
    Cell is damaged but recovers. (Scent glands)
  44. What are the characteristics of Holocrine glands?
    Cell is destroyed.
  45. What are the two types of Holocrine glands?
    exocrine

    endocrine

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