psy200 ch.2

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Anonymous
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psy200 ch.2
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2011-08-31 21:21:04
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chapter 2 of psychology (the brain)
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  1. integration
    the brain the "great integrator" meaning that the brain does a wonderful job of pulling information together. sounds, sights, touch, taste, smells, hearing-- the brain integrates all of these as we function in our world.
  2. afferent nerves
    also called sensory nerves; nerves that carry information about the external environment to the brain and spinal cord via sensory receptors.
  3. central nervous system (cns)
    the brain and spinal cord.
  4. automic nervous system
    the body system that takes messages to and from the body's internal organs, monitoring such processes as breathing, heart rate and digestion.
  5. sympathetic nervous system
    the part of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body.
  6. parasympathetic nervous system
    the part of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body.
  7. neurons
    one of two types of cells in the nervous system; neurons that are nerve cells that handle the information- processing function.
  8. glial cells
    cells in the nervous system that provide support, nutritional benefits, and other functions and keep neurons running smoothly.
  9. dendrites
    treelike fibers projecting from a neuron, which receive information and orient it toward the neuron's cell body.
  10. myelin sheath
    a layer of fat cells that encases and insulates most axons.
  11. resting potential
    the stable, negative charge of an inactive neuron.
  12. neurotransmitters
    chemical substances that are stored in very tiny sacs within the terminal buttons and involved in transmitting information across a synaptic gap to the next neuron.
  13. acetylcholine
    usually stimulates the firing of neurons and is involved in the action of muscles, learning, and memory. is found throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems.
  14. norepinephrine
    inhibits the firing of nerons in the central nervous system, but it excites the heart muscle, intestines, and urogenital tract. also helps control alertness.
  15. dopamine
    helps to control voluntary movement and affects sleep, mood, attention, learning, and the ability to recognize rewards in the environment.
  16. oxytocin
    is a hormone and neurotransmitter that plays an important role in the experience of love and social bonding.
  17. agonist
    a drug that mimics or increases a neurotransmitter's effects.
  18. antagonist
    a drug that blocks a neurotransmitter's effects.
  19. hindbrain
    located at the skull's rear, the lowest portion of the brain, consisting of the medulla, cerebellum, and pons.
  20. brainstem
    the stemlike brain area that includes much of the hindbrain (excluding the cerebellum) and the midbrain; connects with the spinal cord at its lower end and then extends jupward to encase the reticular formation in the midbrain.
  21. amygdala
    an almond shaped structure within the base of the temporal lobe that is involved in the discrimination of objects that are necessary for the organisms survival, such as appropriate food, mates, and social rivals.
  22. hippocampus
    the structure in the limbic system that has a special role in the storage of memories.
  23. cerebral cortex
    part of the forebrain, the outer layer of the brain, responsible for the most complex mental functions, such as thinking and planning.
  24. neocortex
    the outer most part of the cerebral cortex, making up 80 percent of the human brain's cortex.
  25. occipital lobes
    structures located at the back of the head that respond to visual stimuli.

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