Physiology Ch. 7

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  1. 2 types of cells in the nervous system
    • Neurons
    • Supporting cells
  2. Nervous system divided into:
    • CNS (Brain & Spinal cord)
    • PNS (Cranial nerves & Spinal nerves)
  3. Neurons
    • Basic structural and functional units of the nervous system
    • Respond to both physical and chemical (odor, taste) stimuli
    • Produce and conduct electrochemical impulses
    • Release chemical regulators
  4. Cell body
    • Nutrition center
    • Cell bodies within CNS clustered unto nuclei, and in the PNS in ganlia
  5. Dendrites-stimulus is received
    • Provide receptive area
    • When cells are excited--> transmit electrical impulses to cell body--> A.P.
  6. Axon
    Conducts impulses away from the cell body (unidirectional- one direction)
  7. Functional classification of Neurons- Based upon direction impulses conducted
    • Sensory/Afferent
    • Motor/Efferent
    • Association/ interneurons
  8. Sensory/ Afferent: In
    Conduct impulses from sensory receptors into CNS
  9. Motor/ Efferent: Out
    Conduct impulses out of CNS to effector organs
  10. Association/interneurons
    • Located entirely within the CNS
    • Serve an integrative function
  11. Pseudounipolar
    Short single process that branches like a T.Image Upload 1
  12. Bipolar: retina of the eye
    • Have 2 processes
    • Image Upload 2
  13. Multipolar
    • Have several dendrites and 1 axon
    • Image Upload 3
  14. PNS Supporting Cells- give structure to neurons
    • Schwaan Cells
    • Satellite cells
  15. Schwaan cells
    • Successive wrapping of the cell axon membrane
    • Outer surface encased in glycoprotein basement membrane
  16. Nodes of Ranvier: gaps between schwaan cells
    Unmyelinated areas between adjacent schwaan cells that produce nerve impulses
  17. Satellite cells
    • Support neuron cell bodies within ganglia ( group of neuron cell bodies)
    • Image Upload 4
  18. CNS Supporting cells
    • Oligodendrocyctes
    • Astrocytes
    • Microglia
    • Ependymal cells
  19. Oligodendrocyctes: does samething as schwaan cells
    • Each has extensions that form myelin sheaths around several axons. Insulation-
    • Myelin- has insulation around it like schwaan & oligodendrocytes
    • Image Upload 5
Card Set
Physiology Ch. 7
The Nervous System, neurons and synapses
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