Antihistamines

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Author:
busdriverre
ID:
9929
Filename:
Antihistamines
Updated:
2010-03-19 11:39:58
Tags:
antihistamines
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Description:
Respiratory drugs
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  1. Given for?

    Why?
    allergies, hayfever and urticaria

    dries mucosal membranes and reduces edema
  2. Antihistamine groups
    • First generation: greater anticholinergic effects but more sedation and drowsiness
    • Second generation: fewer anticholinergic effects with less sedation
  3. Examples of sedating and nonsedating antihistamines
    • sedating: chlortrimeton (chlorpheniramine), tavist (clemastine fumarate), phenergan (promethazine)
    • nonsedating: allegra (fexofenadine), claritin (loratadine), zyrtec (cetirizine), optimine (azatadine maleate)
  4. Side effects nonsedating and sedating
    • nonsedating: dry mouth, headache, drowsiness, fatigue, dyspepsia, throat irritation, constipation
    • nonsedating: avoid alcohol and other CNS depressants
    • sedating: drowsiness, dry mouth, dizziness, GI distress, thickening of bronchial secretions, blurred vision, hypotension, urinary retention
    • sedating: take with food or milk to decrease GI effects. avoid CNS depressants.
    • DO NOT USE SEDATING with glaucoma, BPH, bladder neck obstruction, GI obstruction
  5. Contraindications and Precautions
    • Pregnancy and lactation
    • used cautiously with impaired liver and kidney functions
    • fatal arrhythmias with prolonged QT intervals
  6. Implementation
    • administer on an empty stomach 1 hr before or 2 hrs after meals
    • give with food if GI upset occurs
    • lozenges or hard candy for dry mouth
    • safety measures if drowiness occurs
    • advise not to drive or operate dangerous machineries
  7. Nursing Implementation
    • increase humidity
    • patient to void before taking
    • advise against OTC use, alcohol use and sedatives: may cause extreme sedation

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