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Name 3 functions of Blood?
- 1. Transportation
- 2. Regulation
- 3. Protection
What is the function of Blood?
- 1. Transportation
- 2. Regulation
- 3. Protection
What does the blood regulate?
- 1. Equilibrium
- 2. Homeostasis
- 3. PH
- 4. Body Temperature
- 5. Osmotic Pressure
How does blood help in protecting the body?
- 1. Clotting
- 2. White blood cells
- 3. Proteins
What does the blood transport?
- 1. Gases
- 2. Nutrients
- 3. Hormones
- 4. Waste products.
The components of Blood are?
- 1. Blood Plasma
- 2. Formed Elements
What is Plasma?
- - It's a water liquid extracellular matrix
- - It's 91.5% water, and 8.5% solutes (primarily proteins)
- - It consists of plasma proteins
- - and other solutes including electrolytes, enzymes, nutrients, hormones, gases, and waste products.
What are the 3 major proteins synthesized by Hepatocytes?
- 1. Albumins
- 2. Fibrinogen (Inactive till needed)
- 3. Globulins
The formed elements, or cells and cell fragments of Blood are?
- 1. Red Blood Cells (RBCs)
- 2. White Blood Cells (WBCs)
- 3. Platelets
Where is the primary site for red blood cell formation, and where is it located?
In red bone marrow, located in long bones (End of femur), pelvis, scapula, or sternum.
Platelets are also known as?
What are the purple specs called?
What cell can proliferate/differentiate into all other cells?
Pluripotent stem cell.
Do Monocytes migrate through the blood?
Yes or No?
What other two parts can the pluripotent stem cell break into?
- 1. Myeloid stem cell.
- 2. Lymphoid stem cell.
From the Myloid stem cell, what are the 6 areas it can breakdown into?
- 1. Proerythroblast
- 2. Megakaryoblast
- 3. Eosinophilic myeloblast
- 4. Basophilic myeloblast
From the Proerythroblast - Reticulocyte (Nucleus ejected) - __________? What is the final product?
Red blood cell (erythrocyte)
From the Megakaryoblast - Megakaryocyte - ________? What is the final product?
A blood cell can last up to how many days?
What does Eosinophilic myeloblast end up as?
What does Basophilic myeloblast end up as?
What does myeloblast end up as?
What does Monoblast end up as?
What are the three Granular leukocytes?
- 1. Eosinophil
- 2. Basophil
- 3. Neutrophil
What is a leukocyte?
White blood cells
What is the 1 Agranular leukocyte?
What is the differance between the Granular and Agranular leukocyte?
Granular leukocytes have particals of enzymes in the cytoplasm. Molecules in the cytoplasm are absent in the Agranular leukocytes.
Stem cells in bone marrow do what two things?
- 1. Reproduce themselves
- 2. Proliferate, and Differentiate
Cells enter the blood stream, by what means?
Pluripotent stem cells produce?
- 1. Myeloid stem cells
- 2. lymphoid stem cells
Myeloid stem cells make what?
- 1. Red Blood Cells
- 2. Platelets
- 3. Monocytes
- 4. Neutrophils
- 5. Eosinophils
- 6. Basophils
Lymphoid stem cells make?
- 1. T Lymphocytes
- 2. B lymphocytes
- 3. Natural Killers
Erythropoietin, is another name for?
Red Blood Cells
Thrombopoientin, is another name for?
Colony-Stimulating factors (CSF's) and Interleukins are also known as?
White Blood Cells
Major function of Red blood cells is to?
Production=Destruction at least 2 billion RBC's per second. T/F
Red blood cells lack nucleus meaning?
- 1. Can't reproduce
- 2. Can't repair themselves.
Hemoglobin transport what percentage of carbon dioxide?
WHen hemoglobin releases its Nitic Oxide (NO), what happens and what does it do?
- 1. It causes Vasodilation
- 2. Improves blood flow and oxygen delivery
What organs remove and destroy old Red blood cells?
Breakdown products from the spleen and lover?
- 1. Globins amino acid's reused
- 2. Iron reused
- 3. Non-iron heme ends as yellow pigment (urobilin) in
- 4. Non-iron heme is brown pigment (stercobilin) in feces.
The componants of blood are?
Do White blood cells have a nuclei?
Do White blood cells contain hemoglobin?
Name 5 types of White Blood Cells
- 1. Nuetrophils
- 2. Basophils
- 3. Eosinophiles
- 4. Monocytes
- 5. Lymphocytes
Function of White blood cells?
To fight invaders with phagocytosis, or immune responses.
Lymphocytes are the major fighters of the immune system?
Yes, depending on the type they fight bacteria, to attacking various various microbes and tumor cells.
B Lymphocyte cells come from?
What do B Lymphocyte cells do?
Destroy bacteria and deactivate their toxins.
Where do T Lymphocyte cells come from?
What do T Lymphocyte cells do?
They attack viruses, fungi, transplanted cells, cancer cells, and some bacteria.
What do Natural Killer (NK) cells do?
Attack a wide variety of infectous microbes, and certain tumor cells.
Each fragment of platelets are enclosed in what?
How many fragments can platelets splinter into?
What is the function of Thrombocytes (Platelets)?
Help in stopping blood loss, by forming a platelet plug.
Life span of platelets are?
What is Graft-vs-Host disease?
Its when the transplanted red bone marrow makes T cells that attack the hosts tissues.
What is Hemostasis?
Its the sequence of responses that stops bleeding.
What are three mechanisms of Hemostasis?
- 1. Vascular spasm.
- 2. Platelet plug formation.
- 3. Blood clotting (coagulation)
What is blood clotting serum?
Blood plasma minus the proteins.
What is blood clotting?
Series of chemical reactions culminating in formation of fibrin threads.
What are the two positive feedback effects of Thrombin?
- 1. Accelerates formation of prothrombinase
- 2. Thrombin activates platelets
Calcium is used in just about every phase of clotting?
Does Vitamin K aid in clotting?
Most common blood groups are?
ABO and Rh
Type A blood has what antigen and what antibodies?
- 1. A antigens
- 2. Anti B antibodies.
Type B blood has what antigens, and what antibodies?
- 1. Antigens B
- 2. Anti A antibodies.
Antibodies in blood
Type O blood has what antigens, and what antibodies?
- 1. Neither antigens
- 2. Both antibodies A and B.
People who have the Rh factor in their blood are?
People who dont have the Rh factor in their blood are?
How can the Hemolytic disease of a newborn be affected.
Only on second child, where the mother is Rh-, and the first born is Rh+. The blood from the fetus comes into contact with the mother during birth, so on the second birth if the child is Rh+, the mother may develope anti Rh- antibodies, which will attack the Rh+ in the fetus