Ch 19 Blood A&PII

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teemick
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99294
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Ch 19 Blood A&PII
Updated:
2011-09-08 19:22:22
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Blood
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RBC's, and WBC's
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  1. Name 3 functions of Blood?
    • 1. Transportation
    • 2. Regulation
    • 3. Protection
  2. What is the function of Blood?
    • To;
    • 1. Transportation
    • 2. Regulation
    • 3. Protection
  3. What does the blood regulate?
    • 1. Equilibrium
    • 2. Homeostasis
    • 3. PH
    • 4. Body Temperature
    • 5. Osmotic Pressure
  4. How does blood help in protecting the body?
    • 1. Clotting
    • 2. White blood cells
    • 3. Proteins
  5. What does the blood transport?
    • 1. Gases
    • 2. Nutrients
    • 3. Hormones
    • 4. Waste products.
  6. The components of Blood are?
    • 1. Blood Plasma
    • 2. Formed Elements
  7. What is Plasma?
    • - It's a water liquid extracellular matrix
    • - It's 91.5% water, and 8.5% solutes (primarily proteins)
    • - It consists of plasma proteins
    • - and other solutes including electrolytes, enzymes, nutrients, hormones, gases, and waste products.
  8. What are the 3 major proteins synthesized by Hepatocytes?
    • 1. Albumins
    • 2. Fibrinogen (Inactive till needed)
    • 3. Globulins
  9. The formed elements, or cells and cell fragments of Blood are?
    • 1. Red Blood Cells (RBCs)
    • 2. White Blood Cells (WBCs)
    • 3. Platelets
  10. Where is the primary site for red blood cell formation, and where is it located?
    In red bone marrow, located in long bones (End of femur), pelvis, scapula, or sternum.
  11. Platelets are also known as?
    Fragments
  12. What are the purple specs called?
    Platelets
  13. What cell can proliferate/differentiate into all other cells?
    Pluripotent stem cell.
  14. Do Monocytes migrate through the blood?

    Yes or No?
    Yes
  15. What other two parts can the pluripotent stem cell break into?
    • 1. Myeloid stem cell.
    • 2. Lymphoid stem cell.
  16. From the Myloid stem cell, what are the 6 areas it can breakdown into?
    • CPU-E
    • 1. Proerythroblast
    • CPU-Meg
    • 2. Megakaryoblast

    • 3. Eosinophilic myeloblast
    • 4. Basophilic myeloblast
  17. From the Proerythroblast - Reticulocyte (Nucleus ejected) - __________? What is the final product?
    Red blood cell (erythrocyte)
  18. From the Megakaryoblast - Megakaryocyte - ________? What is the final product?
    Platelets (thrombocytes)
  19. A blood cell can last up to how many days?
    120 days
  20. What does Eosinophilic myeloblast end up as?
    Eosinophil
  21. What does Basophilic myeloblast end up as?
    Basophil
  22. What does myeloblast end up as?
    Neutrophil
  23. What does Monoblast end up as?
    Monocyte
  24. What are the three Granular leukocytes?
    • 1. Eosinophil
    • 2. Basophil
    • 3. Neutrophil
  25. What is a leukocyte?
    White blood cells
  26. What is the 1 Agranular leukocyte?
    Monocyte
  27. What is the differance between the Granular and Agranular leukocyte?
    Granular leukocytes have particals of enzymes in the cytoplasm. Molecules in the cytoplasm are absent in the Agranular leukocytes.
  28. Stem cells in bone marrow do what two things?
    • 1. Reproduce themselves
    • 2. Proliferate, and Differentiate
  29. Cells enter the blood stream, by what means?
    Sinusoids
  30. Pluripotent stem cells produce?
    • 1. Myeloid stem cells
    • 2. lymphoid stem cells
  31. Myeloid stem cells make what?
    • 1. Red Blood Cells
    • 2. Platelets
    • 3. Monocytes
    • 4. Neutrophils
    • 5. Eosinophils
    • 6. Basophils
  32. Lymphoid stem cells make?
    • Lymphocytes
    • 1. T Lymphocytes
    • 2. B lymphocytes
    • 3. Natural Killers
  33. Erythropoietin, is another name for?
    Red Blood Cells
  34. Thrombopoientin, is another name for?
    Platelets
  35. Colony-Stimulating factors (CSF's) and Interleukins are also known as?
    White Blood Cells
  36. Major function of Red blood cells is to?
    Carry Oxygen
  37. Production=Destruction at least 2 billion RBC's per second. T/F
    True
  38. Red blood cells lack nucleus meaning?
    • 1. Can't reproduce
    • 2. Can't repair themselves.
  39. Hemoglobin transport what percentage of carbon dioxide?
    23%
  40. WHen hemoglobin releases its Nitic Oxide (NO), what happens and what does it do?
    • 1. It causes Vasodilation
    • 2. Improves blood flow and oxygen delivery
  41. What organs remove and destroy old Red blood cells?
    • 1. Liver
    • 2. Spleen
  42. Breakdown products from the spleen and lover?
    • 1. Globins amino acid's reused
    • 2. Iron reused
    • 3. Non-iron heme ends as yellow pigment (urobilin) in
    • Urine.
    • 4. Non-iron heme is brown pigment (stercobilin) in feces.
  43. The componants of blood are?
    • 1. Heme
    • 2. Globin
  44. Do White blood cells have a nuclei?
    Yes
  45. Do White blood cells contain hemoglobin?
    No
  46. Name 5 types of White Blood Cells
    • 1. Nuetrophils
    • 2. Basophils
    • 3. Eosinophiles
    • 4. Monocytes
    • 5. Lymphocytes
  47. Function of White blood cells?
    To fight invaders with phagocytosis, or immune responses.
  48. Lymphocytes are the major fighters of the immune system?
    Yes, depending on the type they fight bacteria, to attacking various various microbes and tumor cells.
  49. B Lymphocyte cells come from?
    Bone marrow
  50. What do B Lymphocyte cells do?
    Destroy bacteria and deactivate their toxins.
  51. Where do T Lymphocyte cells come from?
    Thymus
  52. What do T Lymphocyte cells do?
    They attack viruses, fungi, transplanted cells, cancer cells, and some bacteria.
  53. What do Natural Killer (NK) cells do?
    Attack a wide variety of infectous microbes, and certain tumor cells.
  54. Each fragment of platelets are enclosed in what?
    Plasma membrane
  55. How many fragments can platelets splinter into?
    2000-3000 fragments
  56. What is the function of Thrombocytes (Platelets)?
    Help in stopping blood loss, by forming a platelet plug.
  57. Life span of platelets are?
    5-9 days
  58. What is Graft-vs-Host disease?
    Its when the transplanted red bone marrow makes T cells that attack the hosts tissues.
  59. What is Hemostasis?
    Its the sequence of responses that stops bleeding.
  60. What are three mechanisms of Hemostasis?
    • 1. Vascular spasm.
    • 2. Platelet plug formation.
    • 3. Blood clotting (coagulation)
  61. What is blood clotting serum?
    Blood plasma minus the proteins.
  62. What is blood clotting?
    Series of chemical reactions culminating in formation of fibrin threads.
  63. What are the two positive feedback effects of Thrombin?
    • 1. Accelerates formation of prothrombinase
    • 2. Thrombin activates platelets
  64. Calcium is used in just about every phase of clotting?
    Yes
  65. Does Vitamin K aid in clotting?
    Yes
  66. Most common blood groups are?
    ABO and Rh
  67. Type A blood has what antigen and what antibodies?
    • 1. A antigens
    • 2. Anti B antibodies.
  68. Type B blood has what antigens, and what antibodies?
    • 1. Antigens B
    • 2. Anti A antibodies.
  69. Agglutinin is?
    Antibodies in blood
  70. Type O blood has what antigens, and what antibodies?
    • 1. Neither antigens
    • 2. Both antibodies A and B.
  71. People who have the Rh factor in their blood are?
    Rh positive
  72. People who dont have the Rh factor in their blood are?
    Rh negative
  73. How can the Hemolytic disease of a newborn be affected.
    Only on second child, where the mother is Rh-, and the first born is Rh+. The blood from the fetus comes into contact with the mother during birth, so on the second birth if the child is Rh+, the mother may develope anti Rh- antibodies, which will attack the Rh+ in the fetus

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