CH2 terms pertaining to the body as a whole

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  1. cell membrane
    surrounds and protects the cells and regulates what passes in and out of the cell.
  2. nucleus
    controls the operations of the cell. it directs cell division and determines the structure and function of the cell
  3. chromosomes
    rod like structures within the nucleus that contain regions of DNA called genes. . all human body cells, except sex cells, contain 23 pairs of chromosomes. Sperm and egg cells contain only 23 individual unpaired chromosomes
  4. genes
    regions of DNA within each chromosome
  5. DNA
    Chemical found within each chromosome . Arranged like a sequence of recipies in code. it directs the activities of the cell.
  6. karyotype
    a photograph of an individual's chromosomes arranged by size, shape, and number. it determines if the chromosomes are normal.
  7. Anabolism
    Process of building up complex materials (proteins) from simple materials. Anabolism produces proteins such as hormones and enzymes that are important to growth of cells. Anabolism occurrs in the endoplasmic reticulum of a cell.
  8. Catabolism
    Process of breaking down complex materials to form simpler substances and release energy.
  9. cytoplasm
    all the material that is outsie the nucleus and yet contained within the cell
  10. endoplasmic reticulum
    structure within the cytoplasm. site in which large proteins are made from smaller protein pieces. anabolism takes place on the ribosomes of the ER.
  11. Metabolism
    Total of all chemical process in a cell. Anabolism and catabolism
  12. mitochondria
    structures in the cytoplasm in which foods are burned to release energy. catabolism takes place in mitochondria.
  13. muscle cells
    long and slender and contain fibers that aid in contracting and relaxing
  14. epithelial cells
    a lining skin cell, may be square and flat to provide protection
  15. nerve cell
    may be long and have various fibrous extensions that aid in its job of carrying impulses
  16. fat cell
    contains large, empty spaces for fat storage
  17. histologist
    scientist that specializes in the study of tissues
  18. epithelial tissue
    located all over the body, forms and lines internal organs, and the outer surface of the skin
  19. adipose tissue
    collections of fat cells
  20. cartilage
    flexible connective tissue attached to bones at joints. it surround the trachea and forms part of the ears and nose
  21. larynx
    voice box. located in the upper region of the trachea
  22. pharynx
    throat. it serves as common passageway for food and air
  23. pituitary gland
    endrocine gland at the base of the brain
  24. thyroid gland
    surrounds the trachea in the neck
  25. trachea
    windpipe. leads from the throat to the bronchial tubes
  26. ureter
    one of 2 tubes leading from the kidney to the urinary bladder
  27. urethra
    tube from the urinary bladder to the outside of body
  28. uterus
  29. viscera
    internal organs
  30. abdominal cavity
    space below the chest containing organs like the liver stomach, gallbladder, and intestines. also called the abdomen.
  31. cranial cavity
    space in the head containing the brain and surrounded by the skull.
  32. diaphragm
    muscle separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities. moves up and down to help with breathing.
  33. dorsal
    pertaining to the back
  34. mediastimun
    centrally located space between the lungs
  35. pelvic cavity
    space between the abdomen, containing portions of the intestines, rectum, urinary bladder, reproductive organs.
  36. peritoneum
    double layered membrane surrounding the abdominal organs
  37. pleura
    double layerd membrane surrounding each lung
  38. pleural cavity
    space bewteen the pleural membranes
  39. spinal cavity
    space beteen the spinal column and containing the spinal cord. (also called the spinal canal)
  40. thoracic cavity
    space in the chest containing the heart, lungs, bronchial tubes, trachea, esophagus, and other regions.
  41. ventral (anterior)
    pertaining to the front
  42. cervical
    neck region C1 to C7
  43. thoracic
    chest region T1 to T12
  44. lumbar
    loin (wais ) region L1 to L5
  45. sacral
    region of the sacrum S1 to S5
  46. coccygeal
    region of he coccyx ... tailbone
  47. anterior
    front of the body
  48. deep
    away from the surface
  49. distal
    far from the point of attachement to the trunk or far from the beginning of a structure.
  50. frontal (coronal) plane
    vertical plane dividing the body or structure into anterior and posterior portions
  51. inferior (caudal)
    below another structure; pretaining to the tail or lower portion of the body.
  52. lateral
    pertaining to the side
  53. medial
    pertaining to the middle or near the middle plane of the body
  54. posterior
    back surface of the body
  55. prone
    lying on the belly face down
  56. proximal
    near the point of attachment to the trunk or near the beginning of a structure
  57. sagittal (lateral ) plane
    lengthwise, vertical plane dividing the body or structure into right and left sides.
  58. superficial
    on the surface
  59. superior
    above another structure; pertaining to the head
  60. supine
    lying on the back (face up palms up)
  61. transverse (cross sectional or axial) plane
    horizontal plane dividing the body into upper and lower portions
Card Set
CH2 terms pertaining to the body as a whole
ch 2 for med terminology
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