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scaffholding when initial help is given, but gradually removed as children becomes more competent.
Zone of Proximal Development
the stage at which children benefit from instruction (the phase or learning period when children are receptive to learning a new skill, but aren’t successful at it just yet)
Theory of Mind
theory that others have beliefs desires, and intentions and that these can be different from our ways of thinking. Children develop theory of mind around 4 years.
- baby birds will follow and attach to the first
- large moving object they see Konrad Lorenz: the person who was followed by birds. (he rediscovered imprinting)
- Humans do not imprint.
Harlow removed baby rhesus monkeys from their mothers, and offered them a choice between two surrogate mothers, one made of terrycloth, the other of wire. Positive emotion afforded by touch.
Attachment: Secure: (60%)
- Caregiver is a secure base for exploration. Protests caregiver’s departure and seeks proximity and is comforted on return. (may be comforted by the stranger, but shows clear preference for the
Attachment: Insecure-Avoidant : (15-20%)
baby is indifferent to mom’s departure and by her return. Treats the stranger similarly to the caregiver. The child feels that there is no attachment.
Attachment: Insecure Anxious: (15-20%)
baby is upset by mom’s departure, but not comforted by her return. Stranger is still scary.
Attachment: Disorganized: (5%)
characterized by inconsistent or confused reactions to mom’s departure and return. Caregiver provides both fear and comfort.
Attachment style depends on
- Children: temperament
- Parent: responsiveness
high acceptance: low control
high acceptance, high control
Parenting: Un Involved
low acceptance, low control
low acceptance: high control
statistical learning: recognizing patterns in speech stream
sounds of a language: th, r, z, ah
smallest unit of meaning in a language (re-, ish-)
rules for how world should be put together.
Extra Linguistic Information
other clues to meaning: tone, gesture, sarcasm
Learning Language Time: 2months
cooing and vowel sounds (ahh ,eee)
Learning Language Time: 3-4 months
syllables and consonants, (gah, bah)
Language Learning Time: 6 months
reduplicative babbling (gagagaga dadada ma)
Language Learning Time: 10 months
conversational babbling “bababababa so ota” (raise pitch)
Language Learning Time: 10-12 months
first words, (dada, cookie, doggie)
Language Learning Time: 1-1.5 years
20-100 words holophases: doggie
Language Learning Time: 2 years
several hundred words: 2 word phrases: “more juice”
the study of how people influence our thoughts, behaviors, and attitudes humans are highly social
process by which we assign causes to behavior
Fundamental Attribution Error
- tendency to overestimate dispositional influences on others’ behavior:
- ex. someone cuts you off in the free way ß idiot,
- over estimates situational of influences of our own behavior:
- ex. others low score: dumb, my low score: situational
Jones/ Harrison: The Castro Story
Some subjects were randomly assigned to defend pro/anti Castro Position in debate regardless of their actual feelings
- the ability of an audience to resist being persuaded of something if they are warned beforehand that an
- attempt to persuade them is about to take place
Unpleasant feelings of tension resulting from conflicting thoughts or beliefs. ex. Berry Bonds: great player (uses steroids)
Avoid Dissonant Information: liberal vs conservative. Firm up a belief to justify an action: preference reports: more convinced of a choice after they make
- Cult: Generate a new belief to reconcile the conflict seekers
- cult: create a new belief: change a belief to justify an action
Festinger and Carl Smith
students were asked to spend an hour on boring and tedious tasks (e.g., turning pegs a quarter turn, over and over again). The tasks were designed to generate a strong, negative attitude. Once the subjects had done this, the experimenters asked some of them to do a simple favor. Lie to others: paid high amount and low amount. low amount rated that the experiment wasn't as bad as they thought.
How to use cognitive dissonance?
Justify Actions: do something for someone: favor: it makes you think that you like them.
- Testing whether people conform and why.
- line test: elevator, 75% of subject conformed , at least once: some on all, some only 1 or 2 trails
Diffusion of Responsibility
in a group of people who, through action or inaction, allow events to occur which they would never allow if they were alone.
adherence to instruction from those of a higher authority
subjects “teacher” and “learner” experts thought 1/1000 would go all the way
tendency for people to engage in uncharacteristic behavior when stripped of usual identity: people behave more like a group
“Prison Life Study” by internalizing their roles, they were no longer individuals, but prisoners and guards. Lost themselves in their social roles.
Foot In Door Technique
start with small request before asking for a big one
Door In the face Technique
- start with unreasonably large request before making the
- small, desired request.
Low Ball Technique
A successful low-ball relies on the balance of making the initial request attractive enough to gain agreement, whilst not making the second request so outrageous that the customer refuses.
- Sigmund Freud: first to popularize the unconscious
- Idea: Psychic determinism: all psychological events have a cause
- controls primitive urges: goes Pleasure Principle: concept
- describing people seeking pleasure and avoidingsuffering (pain) in order to satisfy their biological and psychological needs
principles decision; according to the reality principle; i.e. it seeks to please the id’s drive in realistic ways that will benefit in the long term rather than bringing grief
The super-ego works in contradiction to the id. The super-ego strives to act in a socially appropriate manner, whereas the id just wants instant self-gratification. The super-ego controls our sense of right and wrong and guilt. It helps us fit into society by getting us to act in socially acceptable ways
memory is driven into the unconscious.
refusal to admit or remember.
- acting out qualities of a younger age. to combat stressful
- reversing anxiety-causing emotions. complete reversal of
- : attribution of negative qualities to other (taking own
- feelings and putting them to others)
- redirecting emotion to safer outlet: (painting and poem
twist unreasonable to sound reasonable (I bet my feelings are normal because.. )
focus on facts or impersonal thoughts (well according to stats, facts make it okay)
Identification with the aggressor
take on characteristic or sympathizing with threatening others
transform socially unacceptable impulse into a admired goal ( anger to boxing)
Oral Stage: (birth 12-18 months)
focus on the mouth: regression under stress, a need for reassurance, bad habits, such as nail biting or chewing pencil, drinking, smoking, over eating.
Anal Stage: (1.5-3 years):
focus on toilet training. Fixation results in anal personality (high strung)
Phallic Stage (3-6years):
- children were attracted to: opposite sex
Oedipus and Electra Complexes :
became like father because identified with the aggressor
Latency Stage (6-12)
- sexual impulses are submerged into the unconscious: no
- sexual interest. If no fixation has occurred, person engages in healthy romantic relationships
Criticisms of Freud’s Theory
- unfalsifibility, failed prediction: harsh toilet training did not lead to anal personality.
- Lack of audience hard to collect evidence on claims.
- questionable conception of unconscious, unrepresentational samples,
- flawed assumption of shared environmental influence
Birth Order: 1st Child
achievement driven, tendency toward status quo
Birth Order: Middle Child
Birth Order: Last Child
support radical ideas, more likely to take risks
- fraterial (dizygotic twins ) 50%
- identical (monzygotic twins ) 100%
Minnesota Twin Studies
- nearly 130 twins studied and raised apart
- personality is genetic: very roughly 50% means both genetics and environment play a roll
- shared environment does not influence personality
- Resemblance: idea that things in a category share some but not necessarily the
- same features
- Statistical Rarity
- Subjective Distress
- Impairment: interferes
- with daily functioning
- Socially unacceptable
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory:
The test is used by trained professionals to assist in identifying
fear= presently in front of , anxiety: worry about the future 29% of people will meet criteria for an anxiety disorder at some point in life
- brief, intense episodes of extreme fear and feeling of
- impending death or insanity.
- characterized: panic: feeling of helplessness, terror.
- 2 years of panic attacks, each followed by at least 1 month of anxiety over the occurrence of another attack. 20-25% of college students report at least one
- panic attack. 2-5% of US meet the criteria
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
- constant, undifferentiated worry, worry about common things, muscle tension, difficulty sleeping, diagnosis of self-disrupting worry, independent
- of any disorder
- Agoraphobia: fear of the market place: These situations can include, but are not limited to, wide-open spaces, crowds, or uncontrolled social conditions
- arachnophobia: spiders
- Acrophobia: heights
- claustrophobia: spaces
- gynophobia: women
- anthophobia: flower
- Social Phobia: fear of public speaking, fear of social
- situation (7-13%)
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
marked emotional disturbance: after extremely stressful event common among soldiers, flashbacks and or nightmares, loss of sleep, started easily
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (1-2%)
- persistent ideas thoughts or impulses that are unwanted, inappropriate and cause distress. Compulsion: repetitive behavior or mental act to reduce or prevent stress.
- Must consume at least 1 hour a day, interfere with daily
persistent ideas thoughts or impulses that are unwanted: inappropriate and cause stress.
- repetitive behavior or mental act to reduce or prevent
- stress. (checking the door 5 times: calms them down)
Major Depressive Disorder
Prolonged sadness, self-blame, feeling of worthlessness, absence of pleasure, changes in sleep or eating habits, suicidal thoughts. (2 WEEKS ) up to 16% of US Pop Meet Criteria.
mild depression symptoms for at least 2 years
somewhat of a pessimist. learned helpness: things aren’t going to work out so why try
BI POLAR (2-3%)
Characteristic: presence of both depressive and manic episodes:
dramatic elevated mood, heighten self esteem, decreased need for sleep, hyperactivity, reckless decisions
temporary memory loss for important personal info: Usually after a stressful event.
dissociative amnesia coupled with travel/relocation: some start new lives: controversial
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID):
- multiple personality disorder : characteristics: presence
- of 2 or more distinct identities that recurrently take control of one person’s body
- alters: other personalities: they can have distinct handwriting/eye glasses.
Post Traumatic Model:
coping mechanism: severe children abuse results in compartmentalizing self. Other alters arise to cope with situations when the host is overwhelmed
Socio Cognitive Model
- alters are mainly created in therapy thorugh suggestion,
- hypnosis, and coaxing.
- severe disorder of thought and emotional associated with a break from reality associated with a break from reality severe impairment in daily functioning and
- relationships: symptoms highly variable, delusions of persecution, control, and grandeur, increased ventricles and decreased size of brain
Schizophrenia; Dopamine hypothesis
is a model attributing symptoms ofschizophrenia (like psychoses) to a disturbed and hyperactive dopaminergic signal transduction. The model draws evidence from the observation that a large number of antipsychotics have dopamine-receptor antagonistic effects. The theory, however, does not posit dopamine overabundance as a complete explanation for schizophrenia.
strongly held belief with no real basis in reality: delusion of persecution
- sensory perceptions that occur in the absence of external
- stimulus, seeing imaginary people, hearing voices, inner monologue, disorganized thought and speech, incoherent speech.
Disorganized speech and thought
may rise from meaning and word association difficulties. Strange behavior
- motor problems Patients with catatonia may experience an extreme loss of motor skills
- or even constant hyperactive motor activity. Catatonic patients will sometimes
- hold rigid poses for hours and will ignore any external stimuli. Patients with
- catatonic excitement can suffer from exhaustion if not treated. Patients may
- also show stereotyped, repetitive movements.
- Starts with Reflexes: In born: sucking, rooting (turning
- head to grasp) Babinski Reflex: (stroke bottom of toes and it fans out) Moro: stretch out arms
- new object is added to an existing scheme. they
- incorporate the new experience into an already existing framework without changing that framework.
- an exisiting scheme is changed or expanded to account for a new object. accommodation is the process of
- reframing one's mental representation of the external world to fit new experiences
Sensory Stage: roughly birth (2 years)
- develop schemes for acting on objects; objects must be
- physically present (learn what they are for). Children have difficulty conceptualizing absent objects
- realizing an object continues to exist when out of sight.
- when children gain object permanence, they move out of sensory motor stage.
Preoperational stage roughly(2-7 years)
- Can use symbols to represent absent objects. Objects and events no longer have to be present to be thought about.
- The child is able to form stable concepts as well as mental reasoning and magical beliefs. The child however is still not able to perform operations; tasks that the child can do mentally rather than physically. Thinking is still egocentric. The child has difficulty taking the viewpoint of others. Two substages can be formed from preoperative thought.
- the tendency to focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect others.
- example: have trouble representing other people’s point of view.
- is to show a pre-operational child two equivalent glasses of liquid and ask the
- child if one glass has more liquid or if they are the same.
- the ability to keep in mind what stays the same and what changes in an object after it has changed aesthetically.
- example: mass, volume, numbers, and length
Concrete Operational Stage: roughly ages (7-12 year)
- correct understanding of objects based on principles, not appearances. Understanding is tied to
- personal experience
- ex. Random world: hits a glass with a feather = breaks
- what happens if a glass is hit with a feather (does not break)
Formal Operations Stage (roughly ages 12 and
Children are no longer tied to experiences for understanding. Can reason theoretically about the world. Can conceptualize hypothetical situations
WEAKNESS of Piaget Theories
- stage model children’s thinking as over consistent (vary more)
- -underestimates cognitive competency of infants and young children
- -underestimates contribution of social world to cognitive development