Mat Sci. Ch 1,2
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What are the 3 major groups for solid materials?
- 1. Metals
- 2. Ceramics
- 3. Polymers
A solid material class composed of one or more metallic elements (Fe, Cu, Al, Ni, etc.). May have small amounts of non-metallic elements (O, C, N).
A solid material class composed of compounds between metallic and non-metallic elements, most often, oxides, nitrides, and carboden of metallic or non-metallic materials. For example, aluminum ocide (Al2O3), Silicon Carbide.
Traditional ________ are composed of clay materials as well as cement & glass. They have comparable mechanical properties to metals, however are quite brittle in nature.
A solid material class that include the familiar plastic & rubber materials. Many of them are organic compounds based on carbon and hydrogen. Not strong or stiff, highly ductile.
What are materials composed of two or more individual materials which come from metals, ceramics and polymers called? ex. carbon fiber, fiber glass....
What are the 4 Advanced Materials?
- 2. Bio-materials
- 3. Smart materials
- 4. Nano-materials
Advanced material that has electrical properties that are intermediate between electrical conductors (metals & alloys) and imulators (ceramics & polymers).
Advanced materials that are for implantation into the human body to replace damaged body parts.
Advanced materials that are able to sense changes in their enironment and respond to this change in a specific way.
Advanced material that may be any of the solid basic materials, but have a grain sizes structure of a nano meter (10^-9 m)
The number equal to the number of protons and electrons in an atom.
Atomic Number (Z)
The sum of the masses of protons & neutrons within the nucleus.
Atomic Mass (A)
In an __________, the protons remain the same while the neutrons can vary resulting in different atomic masses.
The weighted average of the atomic masses of the atom in naturally occuring isotopes.
The weight of an atom compared to the weight of 1/12th of 12C (carbon 12) isotope.
Atomic Mass Unit (amu)
The number of molecules in one mole:
6.023 x 10^23
The range/distribution of the position of an electron within its shell is called.....
Name the first 4 quantum shells....
K, L, M, N
Name the four subshells and the amounts of electrons in them....
S(2), P(6), D(10), F(14)
What principle states that each electron state can hold no more than 2 electrons, which must have opposite signs.
Pauli exlusion prinicple
What are the electrons occupying the outermost shell and are capable of giving up few electrons to become ions.
Name the 3 Primary Atomic Bonding:
- 1. Ionic
- 2. Covalent
- 3. Metallic
The Atomic Bonding that uses the exchange of valence electrons between elements. (ex. NaCl)
The Atomic Bonding that involves sharing of electroncs creating no Ion. (ex. Methane CH4)
% ionic character formula =
Atomic Bonding that involves the formation of an electron cloud formed by valence electron and become more or less free to drift throughout the entire metal. "sea of electrons"
Secondary Bonding, or ___________, are weak in comparison to the primary ones. Formed by covalent bonds from stable electron structures
Van Der Waals
What is the strongest Atomic Bond?
Name the Electron Configuration order of the shells and subshells....
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