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What are the 5 characteristics of animals?
- -they are multicellular, heterotrophic eukaryotes
- -lack cell walls
- -have two unique tissues: nervous tissue & muscle tissue
- -reproduce sexually; diploid stage dominates life cycle
- -have hox genes
If animals lack cell walls, how are their bodies held together?
with extracellular proteins, such as collagen
What are the 2 unique tissues found in animals and what is their function?
- -nervous tissue- impulse conduction
- -muscle tissue- movement
How do these heterotrophic animals eat?
they ingest organisms or organic material that is decomposing
A zygote undergoes ___________ that leads to the formation of a blastula. (define blastula)
-cleavage; (blastula- hollow ball of cells)
-a succesion of mitotic cell divisions leading to the formation of a multicellular blastula
A blastula will undergo _______ in which some cells migrate inward to form 3 tissue layers which are:_______. The embryo will now be called a _______.
-gastrulation (ectoderm-outer, endoderm-inner, mesoderm-middle) -gastrula
Some animals develop directly through transient stages into adults; others have ________ stages. Give examples. What do these ________ undergo to transform into an adult?
- -larval (ex: frog & tadpole)
- -they undergo metamorphosis
What are Hox genes and what do they do?
- - homeobox
- -regulate expression of other genes and help transform zygote to animal of specific form
- (they are similar in animal groups)
What are the 3 types of muscle tissue?
smooth, skeletal, and cardiac
In sexual reproduction of animals, the sperm is ______________ while the egg is ____________.
- small and flagellated (motile) ------larger and nonmotile