HGA Thorax [1]

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Anonymous
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99348
Filename:
HGA Thorax [1]
Updated:
2011-09-01 09:57:43
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Human Gross Anatomy
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Questions on the Gross Anatomy of the Thorax
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  1. Muscle Names Are Based on
    • 1) Location
    • 2) Shape
    • 3) Size
    • 4) Direction of Fibers
    • 5) location of Attachments
    • 6) Number of Origins
    • 7) Action of the muscle
  2. Thoracic Body Region
    Region between the neck and the abdomen containing the pericardial cavity, mediastium, and two pleural cavities
  3. Posterior Border of the Thoracic Inlet
    Body of T1 Vertebrae
  4. Anterior Border of the Thoracic inlet
    Body of T1 Vertebrae
  5. Medial Border of Thoracic Inlet
    medial border of 1st Ribs

    superior margin of the manubrium ( aka jugular notch, suprasternal notch)
  6. Structures Running Through the Thoracic Inlet
    • 1) esophagus
    • 2) Trachea
    • 3) Vagus Nerves
    • 4) Phrenic Nerves
    • 5) Brachiocephalic Veins
    • 6) common Carotid Artery
    • 7) subclavian artery
    • 8) lymph vessels (not visible in the cadaver)
  7. Anterior Outline of The Thoracic Outlet
    Body of T8 Vertebrae

    costal Margin

    xiphisternal joint/ junction
  8. Posterior Outline of the Thoracic Outlet
    Body of the T12 Vertebrae & outline of 12th Rib
  9. Three Openings in the Diaphragm
    1) Caval Opening

    2) Esophageal Hiatus

    3) Aortic hiatus
  10. Caval Opening
    Opening in diaphram in which the inferior vena cava runs from the abdomen to the thorax, occuring at T8 level
  11. Esophageal Hiatus
    Opening in the diaphragm in which the esophagus and vagus nerves run from the thorax in to the abdomen, occuring at T10 Level
  12. Aortic hiatus
    Opening in the diaphragm in which the aorta, thoracic duct, and azygous vein run from either the thorax to the abdomen or the abdomen to the thorax

    (Occuring at the T12 level)
  13. The diaphragm
    The diaphragm is either the inferior border to the thorax, or the superior border to the abdomen, it depends on perspective (basically what separates the thorax from the abdomen, other than the three openings)
  14. Landmarks of Thorax
    • 1) suprasternal notch (jugular notch)
    • 2) sternal angle (of Louis)
    • 3) medial and lateral clavicle
    • 4) xiphoid process
    • 5) costal arch with costal margins
    • 6) acromion of the shoulder
    • 7) spine of the scapula
    • 8) C7 Vertebrae & spines of the thoracic vertebrae
  15. C7 Vertebrae marks what and is where?
    marks: directly inferior to C7 is T1 (aka: the start of the thoracic vertebrae)

    where: the bone sticking out on the posterior side of your cervical region
  16. Sternum is made up of:
    • 1) suprasternal notch (jugular notch)
    • 2) manubrium
    • 3) sternal angle of Louis
    • 4) body
    • 5) xiphoid process
    • 6) xiphisternal joint
    • 7) clavicular notches
    • 8) costal margins (one for each rib)
  17. Thoracic Vertebrae:
    • 1) spinous process
    • 2) laminae
    • 3) Transverse process
    • 4) transverse costal facet
    • 5) pedicles
    • 6) superior costal facet
    • 7) inferior costal facet
    • 8) body of vertebrae (medium sized)
    • 9) superior articular process
    • 10) superior articular notch
    • 11) inferior articular process
    • 12) vertebral foramen
    • 13) intervertebral foramina
  18. Three Layers of the Thoracic Wall
    • 1) skin layer (anterior axillary fold is skin over the pectoralis major)
    • 2) superficial fascia (fat)
    • 3) deep fascia (dense connective tissue)
  19. Pectoralis Major Muscle
    Origin:
    1) clavicular head → anterior surface of the medial half of the clavicle

    2) sternocostal head → anterior surface of the sternum

    3) superior six costal cartilages

    4) aponeuorosis of external oblique muscles
  20. Pectoralis Major Muscle
    Insertion:
    lateral lip of intertubercular groove of the humerus
  21. Pectoralis Major Muscle
    Innervation:
    medial and lateral pectoral nerve
  22. Pectoralis Major Muscle
    Action:
    1) adducts and medially rotates humerus

    2) draws scapula inferiorly and anteriorly
  23. Pectoralis Major Muscle
    Blood Supply:
    1) thoracoacromial artery

    2) pectoral vein
  24. Rectus
    (with respect to direction of muscle fibers)

    Muscle Fibers running up and down
  25. Transversus
    Muscle fibers running side to side
  26. oblique (with respect to muscle fibers)
    running at an angle other than 90 degrees

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