HGAnatomy Tissues (Histology) and Terminology

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Anonymous
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HGAnatomy Tissues (Histology) and Terminology
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2011-09-01 10:54:16
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Connective tissue bone cartilage connective proper muscle
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Human Gross Anatomy Introductory Terminology and Tissue (Histology)
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  1. Connective Tissues function:
    support organs and other tissues structurally and metabolically
  2. Connective Tissue Characteristics
    1) much intracellular substance (matrix or ground substance)

    2) few cells, widely scattered
  3. Connective Tissue types:
    1) connective tissue proper

    2) cartilage

    3) bone
  4. Connective Tissue Proper is composed of:
    • 1) fibers
    • 2) matrix (ground substance)
    • 3) cells
  5. Fibers of Connective Tissue Proper
    • 1) collagen
    • 2) elastic
    • 3) reticular
  6. Matrix of Connective Tissue Proper:
    • 1) carbohydrates
    • 2) lipids
    • 3) water
    • 4) other chemical compounds
  7. Cells of Connective Tissue Proper:
    • 1) fibroblasts
    • 2) adipocytes
    • 3) macrophages
    • 4) mast cells
    • 5) leukocytes
    • 6) lymphocytes
    • 7) reticular cells
    • 8) plasma cells
  8. Types of Connective Tissue Proper:
    1) loose = areolar = FASCIA

    2) dense connecetive tissue
  9. Loose = areolar = FASCIA facts:
    • 1) separated into types named for the predominant cell present
    • Ex) adipocyte & adipose tissue

    2) Vascular
  10. Dense connective tissue fact:
    matrix is made of collagen fibers
  11. Dense connective tissue types:
    1) dense irregular connective tissue

    2) dense regular connective tissue
  12. Dense Irregular Connective Tissue:
    Collagen fibers are at oblique angles, not so organized

    Ex) deep dermis (or) hypodermis

    (Vascular)
  13. Dense Regular connective Tissue:
    Ex) tendons and ligaments

    collagen fibers are very organized

    (Avascular)
  14. Tendons
    Dense Regular Connective tissue that connects muscle to bone
  15. Ligaments
    Dense Regular Connective tissue that connects bone to bone
  16. Cartilage is comprised of:
    1) chodrocytes in lacunae

    2) matrix

    3) perichondrium
  17. Cartilage:
    A type of Connective Tissue (Avascular)
  18. Chondrocyte
    a cartilage cell, makes the intracellular matrix surrounding itself
  19. Perichodrium two layers
    1) outer fibrous layer

    2) inner cellular layer (made of stem cells)
  20. chondroblasts
    immature chondrocytes which develop from the stem cells in the cellular layer of the perichondrium
  21. Three types of Cartilage
    1) hyaline

    2) elastic

    3) fibrocartilage
  22. Hyaline Cartilage
    smooth and glassy matrix, prevents friction between joints or wherever it is found

    found in: ends of long bones, tip of nose, and trachea
  23. Elastic Cartilage
    elastic proteins usually present, and is stretchy
  24. fibrocartilage
    strong cartilage, found between the two hips and allows child birth to occur without shattering the hips (allows the woman to dialate to at least 10cm)
  25. Bone (as a Connective Tissue)
    has a hard matrix 24/7

    Very vascular

    reservoir for Calcium
  26. Composition of Bone
    1) osteocytes

    2) osteoblasts

    3) osteoclasts

    4) periosteum
  27. osteoclasts
    multinucleated

    destroy/ rebuild the bone

    (allow for growth)
  28. chemical that Calcium brings along to harden the matrix of bone:
    hydroxyapatite
  29. Canaliculi
    canals in bone (or) spaces within bone in which connect one lacuna with another lacuna (2 osteocytes are connected)
  30. Diaphysis
    • shaft, central axis of a long bone
    • (core of the bone)
  31. epiphysis
    on either end of the diaphysis

    rounded globular end of the long bone
  32. metaphysis
    located between the epiphysis and the diaphysis

    you find either the metaphyseal line or the metaphyseal zone/ plate
  33. mesenchyme:
    embryonic connective tissue, in which all bones are derived from
  34. primary ossification center:
    bone tissue it forms replaces most of the cartilage in the shaft of the bone (forming the diaphysis)

    → the osteoclasts come and make the red marrow cavity
  35. secondary ossification center
    appears in other parts of developing bone, usually after birth

    → usually forming the epiphysis
  36. Intramembranous:
    bone formation during embryonic period, beginning in the fetal period (usually 16 weeks and bone is formed)

    → fascia to bone
  37. Endochondral:
    within cartilage (cartilage to bone), usually after fetal life

    → all bones in fetal life are cartilaginous
  38. interstitial
    bone growth in an adult, "from within"

    finished at the end of puberty, growth occurs at the epiphyseal/ metaphyseal zone/plate
  39. appositional
    bone growth "adding layer" "making the trunk of the tree wider"

    comes from the periosteum cell layer

    osteoclasts ensure the width doesn't keep going on and on...

    every three years your bones will be replaced
  40. Axial Skeleton
    (center core of the body)

    • 1) head/ skull
    • 2) vertebrae
    • (cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, coccyx)
    • 3) ribs
    • 4) sternum
    • 5) hyoid bone
    • 6) manubrium
    • 7) xiphoid process
  41. Trochanter:
    large rounded processes (or) large blunt elevations
  42. Tuberosity
    medium-sized rounded, elevated processes (or) small raised eminence
  43. tubercle:
    small rounded process
  44. ridge:
    wide, prominent elevation of long border of bone
  45. crest:
    narrow ridge of a bone
  46. epicondyle
    raised area on or above a condyle
  47. spine
    sharp, elongated process
  48. malleolous
    hammer shaped process
  49. cornu
    curved, hornlike protuberance
  50. condyle
    rounded knuckle-shaped projection
  51. facet
    small, flat surface
  52. head
    expanded, rounded surface of a bone
  53. trochlea
    grooved surface serving as a pulley
  54. ramus
    winged bar of a bone
  55. fossa
    shallow depressed area
  56. groove
    • (aka sulcus)
    • deep furrow on the surface of a bone
  57. notch
    deep indentation on the border of a bone
  58. meatus
    (canal) tubelike passage way
  59. fissure
    narrow, slit like opening
  60. foramen
    natural opening into or thru a bone
  61. sinus
    cavity within a bone
  62. Predominant proteins found in muscle
    • actin
    • myosin
  63. muscle cell name:
    myofibril
  64. origin
    (proximal attachment)

    attachment that moves the least
  65. insertion
    (distal attachment)

    attachment that moves the most
  66. aponeurosis
    special type of tendon that connects muscle to muscle
  67. muscle tone:
    the ability of a muscle to contract and relax

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