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Drug Class: Analgesic (nonopioid)/NSAID/Propionic acid derivative/Anti-inflammatory/analgesic/antipyretic. Side Effects: Headache, dizziness, somnolence, insomnia, rash, nausea, dyspepsia, bronchospasm, anaphylactoid reactions to anaphylactic shock. Interventions: Be aware that patient may be at increased risk of CV event, GI bleeing; monitor accordingly. Institute emergency procedures if overdose occurs; Gastric levage, induction of emesis, and supportive therapy.
Drug Class: Coumarin derivative/Oral anticoagulant. Side Effects: Alopecia, urticaria, dermatitis, and nausea. Interventions: Do not use if patient is pregnant; advise non-pregnant patients to use contraceptives. Evaluate patient for signs of blood loss (petechiae, bleeding gums, bruises, dark stools, dark urine).Do not give patient IM injections. Double check all drugs for interactions; dosage of both drugs may need to be adjusted. Evaluate for therapeutic effects; INR within therapeutic range.
Drug Class: Antihistamine/Anti-motion-sickness/Antiparkinsonian/Cough suppressant/Sedative-hypnotic. Side Effects: Drowsiness, sedation, dizziness, disturbed coordination, Epigastric distress, Hematologic problems, thickening of bronchial secretions, and anaphylactic shock. Interventions: Take with food if stomach upset occurs. Take as prescribed; avoid excessive dosage. Avoid alcohol.
Potassium chloride (K-Lor)
Drug Class: Electrolyte. Side Effects: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal discomfort. Interventions: Arrange for serum potassium levels before and during therapy. Caution patients not to use salt substitutes.
Drug Class: Antidepressant/SSRI. Side Effects: Headache, nervousness, insomnia, drowsiness, anxiety, tremor, dizziness, lightheadedness, sweating, rash, pruritus, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dry mouth, anorexia, dyspenea, constipation. Interventions: Fatal reactions with MAOI's and Lithium, do not administer either with this medication. Increased therapeutic and toxic effects of TCA's. Black Box warning: Establish suicide precautions for severely depressed patients, limit quantity of tablets dispensed; high risk in children and adolescents. Dose should be tapered gradually to avoid withdrawl syndrome.
Drug Class: Loop Diuretic. Side Effects: Dizziness, vertigo, paresthesias, xanthopsia, weakness, orthostatic hypotension, thrombophlebitis, photosensitivity, rash, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Interventions: Profound diuresis with water and electrolyte depletion can occur; careful medical superivision is required.
Drug Class: Analgesic(nonopioid)/Antipyretic. Side Effects: Headache, myocardial damage, hepatic toxicity and failure. Interventions: Do not exceed dosage. Discontinue if fever, severe, or recurrent pain occurs. Give with food.
Drug Class: Antibiotic/Penicillin. Side Effects: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, rash, fever, wheezing. Interventions: Check IV site for signs of thrombosis, move IV site for multiple injections. Take medication on an empty stomach.Take the full dose until it is gone.
Drug Class: Testing Agent. Side Effects: Rash and redness. Interventions: Watch for a reaction (recheck in 48-72 hours), do not press or rub site of injection.
Insulin (diabetic hormone)
Drug Class: Antidiabetic. Side Effects: Hypersensitivity, anaphylaxis, and angioedema. Interventions: Roll vial between hands, do not shake. Subcutaneous injection in the stomach. Dosage may vary.
Drug Class: ACE inhibitor/Antihypertensive. Side Effects: Headache, dizziness, insomnia, fatigue, orthostatic hypotension, airway obstruction, angioedema, and MI. Interventions: Keep epinephrine readily available in case of angioedema of the face or neck region. Suggest the use of contraceptives, if pregnancy should occur, discontinue use as soon as possible; fetal injury or death may occur.
Drug Class: Antibiotic/Cephalosporin (first generation). Side Effects: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, abdominal pain, flatulence, bone marrow depression, anaphylaxis, and superinfections.
Drug Class: Urinary analgesic. Side Effects: Headache, rash, GI disturbances, and a yellow-orange discoloration of urine. Interventions: Give after meals to avoid GI upset. Warn the patient the drug may stain contact lenses and fabric. Discontinue use if skin or sclera become yellowish, a sign of drug accumulation.
Drug Class: Anticoagulant. Side Effects: Bruising, white clot syndrome. Interventions: Adjust dose before each injection - depending on the coagulation test. Apply pressure to all injection sites after needle is withdrawn; inspect injection sites for signs of hematoma; do not amssage injection sites. Watch for overdose.
Red Blood Cells
In addition to serving as carriers of O(2), red blood cells (RBCs) regulate vascular resistance and the distribution of microvascular perfusion by liberating adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) upon exposure to a low O(2) environment. Therefore, RBCs act as sensors that respond to low pO(2) by releasing millimolar amounts of ATP, a signaling molecule, and lipid mediators (EETs). The release of EETs occurs by a mechanism that is activated by ATP stimulation of P2X(7) receptors coupled to ATP transporters, which should greatly amplify the circulatory response to ATP. RBCs are reservoirs of EETs and the primary sources of plasma EETs, which are esterified to the phospholipids of lipoproteins.
Drug Class: Antineoplastic/Immunomodulator/Interferon. Side Effects: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, depression, Suicidal ideation, confusion, headache. Interventions: Monitor for severe reactions and notify physician immediately; it may be necessary to reduce dosage or discontinue drug because of risk of potential life-threatening disorders.
- Drug Class: Antiestrogen. Side Effects: changes in vision (blurred vision), changes in your menstrual
- cycle, difficulty breathing or shortness of breath, difficulty walking or
- talking, new breast lumps, numbness, pelvic pain or
- pressure, redness, blistering, peeling or loosening of the skin, including
- inside the mouth, skin rash or itching (hives), sudden chest
- pain, swelling of lips, face, or tongue, swelling, pain or tenderness in
- your calf or leg, unusual bruising or bleeding, vaginal discharge that is
- bloody, brown, or rust, weakness, yellowing of the whites of the eyes or
- skin, fatigue, hair loss, although uncommon and is usually
- mild, headache, hot flashes, impotence (in men), nausea, vomiting
- (mild), and vaginal discharge (white or clear). Interventions: It is commonly used to treat breast cancer. It is also used to decrease the
- chance of breast cancer coming back in women who have received treatment for the
- disease. It may also help prevent breast cancer in women who have a high risk of
- developing breast cancer.
- Drug Class: Alkylating drug/Antineoplastic/Nitrogen mustard derivative. Side Effects: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomitis, anorexia, hemorrhagic cystitis, leukopenia. Interventions: Do not give full dosage within 4 weeks after radiation treatment due to the risk of severe bone marrow depression; reduce dosage may be needed. Make sure patient is well hydrated before treatment to reduce risk of cystitis.
- Imatinib mesylate (Gleevec)