Descent with modification; the idea that living species are descendents of ancestral species that were different from the present-day ones; also defined more narrowly as the change in the genetic composition of a population from generation to generation.
An approach to studying biology that aims to model the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems based on a study of the interactions among the system's parts.
A type of cell with a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrance-enclosed organelles. Organisms with ... (protists, plants, fungi, and animals) are called eukaryotes.
A type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles. Organisms with... (bacteria and archaea) are called prokaryotes.
A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses).
The process by which information encoded in DNA directs the synthesis of proteins or, in some cases, RNAs that are not translated into proteins and instead function as RNAs.
The genetic material of an organism or virus; the complete complement of an organism's or virus's genes along with its noncoding nucleic acid sequences.
The study of whole sets of genes and their interactions within a species, as well as genome comparisons between species.
The use of computers, software, and mathematical models to process and integrate biological information from large data sets.
A form of regulation in which accumulation of an end product of a process slows the process; in physiology, a primary mechanism of homeostasis, whereby a change in a variable triggers a response that counteracts the intial change.
A form of regulation in which an end product of a process speeds up that process; in physiology, a control mechanism in which a change in a variable triggers a response that reinforces or amplifies the change.
One of two prokaryotic domains, the other being Archaea.
One of two prokaryotic domains, the other being Bacteria.
The domain that includes all eukaryotic organisms.