BIOL432 Vertebrate Diversity & History

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BIOL432 Vertebrate Diversity & History
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2011-09-02 18:38:51
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BIOL432 Vertebrate Diversity History
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BIOL432 Vertebrate Diversity & History
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  1. What does "Agnatha" mean?
    Without jaw.
  2. List 2 subgroups of Agnatha.
    • Ostracoderms
    • Cyclostomes
  3. Of the 2 subgroups of Agnatha, which of them is extinct?
    Ostracoderms
  4. Give 1 example of Ostracoderms.
    Bony Fishes
  5. Give 2 examples of Cyclostomes.
    • Lampreys
    • Hagfishes/hagslimes
  6. What does Cyclostome mean?
    Round mouth.
  7. List the 6 Ancestral features of the Lampreys.
    • No jaws.
    • Single median nostril.
    • Inner ear
    • Persistent notochord
    • No paired appendages
    • No bone
  8. What is located within the Inner Ear of the Ancestral Lampreys?
    2 Semi-Circular Canals
  9. Of the 6 Ancestral Features of Lampreys, which two are NOT shared by Ostracoderms?
    • No paired appendages.
    • No bone.
  10. What does Gnathostome mean?
    With jaw.
  11. What group within the Gnathostomes represent Bony Plated Fish?
    Placoderms.
  12. What group within Gnathostomes represent Cartilaginous Fishes?
    Chondricthyes
  13. List the 2 subgroups of Chondricthyes.
    • Holocephalians
    • Elasmobranchs
  14. Give an example of a Holocephalian.
    Chimaeras
  15. Give 2 examples of Elasmobranchs.
    • Sharks
    • Rays
  16. What are 2 significant characteristics about Elasmobranchs?
    • No bone.
    • No operculum.
  17. What is an Operculum?
    The flap of skin that covers gills in fish.
  18. Acanthodii (extinct) encompasses what two general animal groups?
    Spiny Fishes & Spiny Sharks
  19. What does Acant in Acanthodii mean?
    Spine
  20. What kind of animals are found in Osteichthyes?
    Bony fishes.
  21. List two subgroups of Osteichthyes.
    • Actinopterygii
    • Sarcopterygii
  22. What does Actino mean?
    Ray
  23. In which group of Osteichthyes are the majority of fishes found?
    Actinopterygii
  24. What does Sarco mean?
    Fleshy
  25. Give an example of an animal from Actinopterygii.
    Ray-finned fishes
  26. What are the two subgroups of Sarcopterygii?
    • Dipnoi
    • Crossopterygia
  27. Give an example of a Dipnoi.
    Lungfish
  28. Which of the two subgroups of Sarcopterygii are the Tetrapod Ancestors?
    Crossopterygia
  29. What are the two subgroups of Crossopterygia?
    • Coelacanths
    • Intermediate Forms
  30. Give two examples of Intermediate Forms.
    • Panderichthys
    • Tiktaalik
  31. Which group in Crossopterygia was thought to be extinct yet reappeared in the 1930s?
    Coelacanths
  32. What's another name for the Intermediate Forms?
    "Fishpods"
  33. List the two main groups for Amphibia.
    • Labyrinthodonts
    • Lissamphibia
  34. Give an example for Labyrinthodonts.
    Ichthyostega
  35. Give 3 examples for Lissamphibia.
    • Salamanders
    • Frogs
    • Caecilians
  36. The major divisions of Reptiles is based on what?
    Holes in the skull
  37. What are the three major divisions of Reptiles?
    • Anapsida
    • Synapsida
    • Diapsida
  38. How many hole openings are found in the skulls of Anapsida?
    0
  39. How many hole openings are found in the skulls of Synapsida?
    1
  40. How many hole openings are found in the skulls of Diapsida?
    2
  41. Which of the major divisions of Reptiles are extinct?
    Anapsida
  42. Give 4 groups of Diapsida.
    • Lepidosauria
    • Testudines
    • Archosauria
    • Sauropterygia
  43. Give 2 examples of Lepidosauria.
    • Lizards
    • Snakes
  44. Give an example of Testudine.
    Turtle
  45. Give 3 examples of Archosauria.
    • Dinosaurs
    • Pterosaurs
    • Crocodilians.
  46. Give 2 examples of Sauropterygia.
    • Ichthyosaurs
    • Plesiosaurs
  47. Which of the 2 groups of Sauropterygia are extinct marine reptiles?
    Plesiosaurs
  48. What kind of animal is found under Synapsida?
    Mammal-Like Reptiles (MLRs)
  49. Early reptiles gave rise to what two endothermic groups?
    Birds & Mammals
  50. What does Aves mean?
    Birds
  51. What gave rise to Aves?
    Archosaurs
  52. What are two examples of Aves.
    • Archaeopteryx
    • Neornithes
  53. Of the two groups under Aves, which group encompasses all currently living birds?
    Neornithes
  54. What is the oldest known bird with many reptilian features?
    Archaeopteryx
  55. What is the closest LIVING relative to Birds?
    Crocodillians
  56. What group gave rise to Mammalia?
    Synapsids
  57. What are the two groups under Mammlia?
    • Prototheria
    • Theria
  58. What two main groups do Prototheria encompass?
    • Monotremes
    • Many Mesozoic animals.
  59. What two main groups do Theria encompass?
    • Placentals
    • Marsupials
  60. Give an example of a Placental.
    Humans
  61. Give an example of a Marsupial.
    Possum
  62. What major groups dominated the water, land, and sky during the Mesozoic period?
    • Ichthyosaurs
    • Reptiles
    • Pterosaurs
  63. What are the major innovations in the History of Vertebrates?
    • Bone
    • Jaws
    • Lungs & Limbs
    • Amniotic Eggs
    • Endothermy
    • Larger brain, better sense organs, complex behavior
  64. When did the innovation of BONE arise?
    Cambrian - Ordovician
  65. When did the innovation of JAWS arise?
    Silurian
  66. When did the innovation of Lungs & Limbs arise?
    Devonian
  67. When did the innovation of AMNIOTIC EGG arise?
    Carboniferous
  68. When did the innovation of ENDOTHERMY arise?
    • Triassic for Mammals
    • Jurassic for Birds
  69. With their respective Innovations, give an example of each.
    • Bone - Ostracoderms
    • Jaws - Placoderms, Chondrichthyes, Bony Fishes
    • Lungs & Limbs - Amphibians
    • Amniotic Egg - Stem Reptiles
    • Endothermy - Mammals & Birds

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