BIOL432 Vertebrate Diversity & History
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What does "Agnatha" mean?
List 2 subgroups of Agnatha.
Of the 2 subgroups of Agnatha, which of them is extinct?
Give 1 example of Ostracoderms.
Give 2 examples of Cyclostomes.
What does Cyclostome mean?
List the 6 Ancestral features of the Lampreys.
- No jaws.
- Single median nostril.
- Inner ear
- Persistent notochord
- No paired appendages
- No bone
What is located within the Inner Ear of the Ancestral Lampreys?
2 Semi-Circular Canals
Of the 6 Ancestral Features of Lampreys, which two are NOT shared by Ostracoderms?
- No paired appendages.
- No bone.
What does Gnathostome mean?
What group within the Gnathostomes represent Bony Plated Fish?
What group within Gnathostomes represent Cartilaginous Fishes?
List the 2 subgroups of Chondricthyes.
Give an example of a Holocephalian.
Give 2 examples of Elasmobranchs.
What are 2 significant characteristics about Elasmobranchs?
What is an Operculum?
The flap of skin that covers gills in fish.
Acanthodii (extinct) encompasses what two general animal groups?
Spiny Fishes & Spiny Sharks
What does Acant in Acanthodii mean?
What kind of animals are found in Osteichthyes?
List two subgroups of Osteichthyes.
What does Actino mean?
In which group of Osteichthyes are the majority of fishes found?
What does Sarco mean?
Give an example of an animal from Actinopterygii.
What are the two subgroups of Sarcopterygii?
Give an example of a Dipnoi.
Which of the two subgroups of Sarcopterygii are the Tetrapod Ancestors?
What are the two subgroups of Crossopterygia?
- Intermediate Forms
Give two examples of Intermediate Forms.
Which group in Crossopterygia was thought to be extinct yet reappeared in the 1930s?
What's another name for the Intermediate Forms?
List the two main groups for Amphibia.
Give an example for Labyrinthodonts.
Give 3 examples for Lissamphibia.
The major divisions of Reptiles is based on what?
Holes in the skull
What are the three major divisions of Reptiles?
How many hole openings are found in the skulls of Anapsida?
How many hole openings are found in the skulls of Synapsida?
How many hole openings are found in the skulls of Diapsida?
Which of the major divisions of Reptiles are extinct?
Give 4 groups of Diapsida.
Give 2 examples of Lepidosauria.
Give an example of Testudine.
Give 3 examples of Archosauria.
Give 2 examples of Sauropterygia.
Which of the 2 groups of Sauropterygia are extinct marine reptiles?
What kind of animal is found under Synapsida?
Mammal-Like Reptiles (MLRs)
Early reptiles gave rise to what two endothermic groups?
Birds & Mammals
What does Aves mean?
What gave rise to Aves?
What are two examples of Aves.
Of the two groups under Aves, which group encompasses all currently living birds?
What is the oldest known bird with many reptilian features?
What is the closest LIVING relative to Birds?
What group gave rise to Mammalia?
What are the two groups under Mammlia?
What two main groups do Prototheria encompass?
- Many Mesozoic animals.
What two main groups do Theria encompass?
Give an example of a Placental.
Give an example of a Marsupial.
What major groups dominated the water, land, and sky during the Mesozoic period?
What are the major innovations in the History of Vertebrates?
- Lungs & Limbs
- Amniotic Eggs
- Larger brain, better sense organs, complex behavior
When did the innovation of BONE arise?
Cambrian - Ordovician
When did the innovation of JAWS arise?
When did the innovation of Lungs & Limbs arise?
When did the innovation of AMNIOTIC EGG arise?
When did the innovation of ENDOTHERMY arise?
- Triassic for Mammals
- Jurassic for Birds
With their respective Innovations, give an example of each.
- Bone - Ostracoderms
- Jaws - Placoderms, Chondrichthyes, Bony Fishes
- Lungs & Limbs - Amphibians
- Amniotic Egg - Stem Reptiles
- Endothermy - Mammals & Birds
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