Chapter 1: Lesson Two

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Chapter 1: Lesson Two
2011-09-02 20:56:26
Chapter Lesson Two

Chapter 1: Lesson Two
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  1. The smallest unit of matter that can enter into chemical reactions and is nondivisible bychemical means is called a(an) ______.
  2. Which of the following is a subatomic particle of an atom?
    all are subatomic particle
  3. The atomic mass of an atom is equal to the number of ______ plus the number of ______.
    protons, neutron
  4. Which of the following statements is true?
    Electrons have a negative charge and equal the number of protons.
  5. What determines whether or not an atom reacts with other atoms?
    the number of electrons in the outer shell
  6. In an electrically neutral atom, the number of ______ is equal to the number of ______.
    protons, electron
  7. The carbon atom has an atomic number of 6 and an atomic mass of 12. Therefore, a carbonatom has ______ protons.
  8. Chlorine has an atomic number of 17 and an atomic mass of 35. When chlorine becomes thechloride ion, its charge is ______.
    negative 1
  9. Chlorine has an atomic number of 17. How many electrons are in the outermost shell
  10. The molecule, K+Cl‐, is held together by ______ bonds.
  11. If an atom either gains or loses an electron, the atom is called a(an) ______.
    : ion
  12. Which type of bond will share electrons between atoms?
  13. When two nonmetal oxygen atoms (atomic number = 8) react with each other, they ______.
    share electrons
  14. If there are three pairs of electrons that are shared between two atoms, a(an) ______ isformed.
    : triple bond
  15. An individual water molecule is held together by ______.
    covalent bonds
  16. Many water molecules are weakly held together by ______.
    : hydrogen bonds
  17. Which of the following statements is NOT a true characteristic of water?
    : Because of hydrogen bonding, liquid water is less dense than ice.
  18. ______ are molecules that dissociate in water, releasing hydrogen ions
    : Acids
  19. If the concentration of hydrogen ions is 1 x 10‐6,, the pH is ______.
  20. At which pH will the concentration of hydrogen ions be equal to the concentration of hydroxideions?
    pH 7
  21. When hydrochloric acid, a strong acid, is added to water, the pH of water ______.
    goes down
  22. ______ are chemicals or combinations of chemicals that take up excess hydrogen ions orhydroxide ions in order to keep the pH constant.
  23. If the hydrogen ion concentration in water was 0.0000001, the pH is ______.
  24. Which atoms are always found in organic molecules?
    carbon and hydrogen
  25. Which of the following is NOT an organic molecule?
    : water
  26. Which of the following statements is NOT correct about organic molecules?
    : Organic molecules always have ionic bonding between atoms.
  27. Carbohydrates are macromolecules composed of ______ monomers.
  28. ______ is the process of splitting of a bond within a larger molecule by the addition of water
    : Hydrolysis
  29. ______ is the process in which water is removed when two monomers join to form amacromolecule
    : dehydration reaction
  30. Glucose, fructose, and galactose are all classified as ______.
  31. Which type of organic macromolecule is used primarily for energy and structure
    r: carbohydrate
  32. Which of the following molecules is NOT a polysaccharide?
  33. Which type of carbohydrate is found in plant cell walls and accounts in part for the strongnature of these walls
  34. Glycerol and fatty acid are the monomers for most ______.
    : lipids
  35. ______ occurs when an oil droplet is dispersed in water.
  36. A saturated fatty acid contains more ______ atoms than the same unsaturated fatty acid.
    : hydrogen
  37. When glycerol combines with three fatty acids, a (an) ______ molecule results
  38. ______ are lipids containing phosphorus that are very important in cell membranes
  39. Which type of organic molecule is used for long‐term energy storage, insulation against heatloss, and forms a protective cushion around major organs
  40. Which type of lipid has four fused carbon rings?
  41. Which of the following molecules is NOT a steroid?
  42. A (An) ______ has a hydrocarbon chain (a string of carbon atoms with hydrogen atomsattached) and ends with the acid group ‐COOH.
    amino acid
  43. Proteins are polymers of ______.
    amino acids
  44. What is the name of this functional group: ‐COOH ?
    : acidic group
  45. The bond that occurs between the acid group of one amino acid and the amino group ofanother amino acid is termed a (an) ______ bond.
    : peptide
  46. A ______ is a chain of amino acids joined by peptide bonds.
    : polypeptide
  47. Which of the following types of organic molecules have their monomers joined by a peptidebond?
  48. Which type of organic molecule sometimes has a structural role and may act as an enzyme?
  49. What is the final three‐dimensional shape of a protein called?
    tertiary structure
  50. The _______ structure of a protein is the linear sequence of the amino acids joined by peptidebonds.
    r: primary
  51. The ______ structure of a protein comes about when the polypeptide chain takes a particularorientation in space.
  52. What are the components of a nucleotide?
    : phosphate, pentose sugar, nitrogen‐containing base
  53. When nucleotide monomers join together, the ______ polymer is formed.
    : nucleic acid
  54. The backbone of a nucleic acid is composed of ______.
    r:sugar‐ phosphate‐sugar‐phosphate, etc.
  55. _____ molecules are characterized by having two strands of nucleotide polymers held togetherby hydrogen bonds.
    r: DNA
  56. Which organic macromolecules are used for reproduction and to control protein synthesis?
    : nucleic acids
  57. Which molecule functions as an energy carrier in cells?
  58. Which pair below is mismatched?
    r: glycerol‐glycogen
  59. After ATP breaks down to ADP, what is added to ADP to restore it to back to ATP?