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ACETONE (serum or plasma)
Elevated in: DKA, starvation, isopropanol ingestion
ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR (AChR) ANTIBODY
Normal: <0.03 nmol/L
Elevated in: Myasthenia gravis.
Changes in AChR concentration correlate with the clinical severity of myasthenia gravis following therapy and during therapy with prednisone and immunosuppressants.
False-positive AChR antibody results may be found in patients with Eaton-Lambert syndrome.
ACID PHOSPHATASE (serum)
Normal range: 0-5.5 U/L (0-90 nkat/L [CF: 16.67; SMI: 2 nkat/L])
Elevated in: Carcinoma of prostate, other neoplasms (breast, bone), Paget’s disease, osteogenesis imperfecta, malignant invasion of bone, Gaucher’s disease, multiple myeloma, myeloproliferative disorders, benign prostatic hypertrophy, prostatic palpation or surgery, hyperparathyroidism, liver disease, chronic renal failure, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, bronchitis
ACTIVATED CLOTTING TIME (ACT)
Normal: This test is used to determine the dose of protamine sulfate to reverse the effect of heparin as an anticoagulant during angioplasty, cardiac surgery, and hemodialysis.
The accepted goal during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery is usually 400-500 sec.
Normal: 9-52 pg/ml
- Elevated in:
- Addison’s disease,
- ectopic ACTH-producing tumors,
- congenital adrenal hyperplasia,
- Nelson’s syndrome,
- pituitary-dependent Cushing’s disease
- Decreased in:
- Secondary adrenocortical insufficiency,
- adrenal adenoma or
- adrenal carcinoma
- Male: 1.11-1.71 mcd/ml
- Female: 0.96-1.52 mcg/ml
Elevated in: Liver or pancreatic disease, ethanol use, oral contraceptives use, malignancy, tobacco use, pregnancy
Decreased in: Abortion
ALANINE AMINOTRANSFERASE (ALT, SGPT)
Normal range: 0-35 U/L (0.058 mkat/L [CF: 0.02 mkat/L])
- Elevated in:
- Liver disease (hepatitis, cirrhosis, Reye’s syndrome), hepatic congestion, infectious mononucleosis, myocardial infarction, myocarditis,severe muscle trauma, dermatomyositis/polymyositis, muscular dystrophy, drugs (antibiotics, narcotics, antihypertensive agents, heparin, labetalol, statins, NSAIDs, amiodarone, chlorpromazine, phenytoin), malignancy, renal and pulmonary infarction, convulsions, eclampsia, shock liver
Normal range: 4-6 g/dl (40-60 g/L [CF: 10; SMI: 1 g/L])
Elevated in: Dehydration (relative increase)
Decreased in: Liver disease, nephrotic syndrome, poor nutritional status, rapid IV hydration, protein-losing enteropathies (e.g., inflammatory bowel disease), severe burns, neoplasia, chronic inflammatory diseases, pregnancy,oral contraceptives, prolonged immobilization, lymphomas, hypervitaminosis A, chronic glomerulonephritis
Normal: 0-7 U/L
Elevated in: Drug-induced hepatocellular damage, obstructive jaundice, malignancy, inflammation, infection
Normal range: 0-6 U/L (0-100 nkat/L [CF: 16.67; SMI: 20 nkat/L])
Elevated in: Muscular dystrophy, rhabdomyolysis, dermatomyositis/polymyositis, trichinosis, acute hepatitis and other liver diseases, myocardial infarction, prostatic carcinoma, hemorrhagic pancreatitis, gangrene, delirium tremens, burns
Decreased in: Loss of muscle mass, late stages of muscular dystrophy