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  1. anatomy
    branch of science that deals with the structure(morphology) of body parts-their forms and how they are organized.
  2. physiology
    concerns the functions of body parts-what they do and how they do it.
  3. anatomical position
    the body is standing erect, face forward, with the upper limbs at the sides and palms forward
  4. superior
    body part is above another part. (The thoracic cavity is superior to the abdominopelvic cavity.)
  5. inferior
    • body part is below another body part.
    • (the neck is inferior to the head)
  6. anterior
    • towrd the front.
    • (the eyes are anterior to the brain)
  7. posterior
    • toward the back.
    • (the pharynx is posterior to the oral cavity)
  8. medial
    imaginary midline dividing the body into equal right and left halves. Body part is medial if it is closer to the midline than another part. (The nose is medial to the eyes)
  9. Lateral
    • toward the side, away from the imaginary midline.
    • (The ears are lateral to the eyes0
  10. Bilateral
    • Paired structures, one of which is on each side.
    • (the lungs are bilateral)
  11. Ipsilateral
    • structures on the same side.
    • (the right lung and the right kidney are ipsilateral.)
  12. contralateral
    • structures on opposite side.
    • ( A pt with a fractured bone in the right leg would have to bear weight on the contralateral-in this case-,left-lower limb.)
  13. proximal
    • body part that is closer to a point of attachment to the trunk than another body part.
    • (The elbow is proximal to the wrist)
  14. distal
    • opposite of proximal. body part is farther from a point of attachment to the trunk than another body part is.
    • (the fingers are distal to the wrist)
  15. superficial
    near the surface
  16. deep
    • more internal than superficial parts. ( the
    • dermis is the deep layer of the skin)
  17. viscera
    the thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity, organs within these two cavities
  18. parietal pleura
    the walls of the right and left thoracic compartments, which contain the lungs, are lined with a membrane
  19. visceral pleura
    membrane covers each lung
  20. parietal
    membrane attached to the wall of a cavity
  21. visceral
    membrane that is deeper-toward the interior- covers an internal organ such as a lung.
  22. pleural cavity
    potential space between parietal and visceral pleural membrane,(no space exists)
  23. pericardial membranes
    surrounds the heart
  24. organ systems
    integumentary system, skeletal system, muscular system, nervous system, endocrine system, cardiovascular system, lymphatic system, digestive system, respiratory system, urinary system, reproductive system
  25. integumentary system
    skin, hair, nails, sweat glands and sebaceous glands
  26. skeletal system
    bones, ligaments and cartilages that bind bones together.
  27. muscular system
    muscles provide forces that move body parts by contracting and pulling their ends closer together.
  28. nervous system
    brain, spinal cord, nerves and sense organs.
  29. endocrine system
    includes all the glands that secrete chemical messengers called hormones.
  30. cardiovascular system
    heart, arteries, veins, capillaries, and blood.
  31. lymphatic system
    • lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, thymus, spleen, and a fluid called lymph.
    • carries certain fatty substances away from the digestive organs.
  32. digestive system
    mouth, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancrease, small intestines, large intestines
  33. respiratory system
    nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
  34. urinary system
    kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra.
  35. reproductive system (male)
    scrotum, testes, epididymids, ductus deferentia, seminal vesicles,prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, peniss and urethra
  36. reproductive system (female)
    ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, clitoris, and vulva.
  37. abdominal cavity, organs
    stomach, liver, spleen, gallbladder, kidneys and most of the small and large intestines
  38. pelvic cavity organs
    large intestine, urinary bladder, and internal reproductive organs.
  39. oral cavity
    teeth and tongue
  40. nasal cavity
    nose, right and left portions ofby a nasal septum
  41. orbital cavities
    eyes and skeletal muscles and nerves
  42. middle ear cavities
    middle ear bones
  43. Requirements of organisms
    water, foods, oxygen, heat, pressue
  44. water
    h2o, most abundant chemical in the body. transports substances within the organism and is important in regulating body temp.
  45. foods
    substances that provide the body w/ necessary chemicals.
  46. oxygen
    gas that makes up about 1/5 of ordinary air. it is used to release energy from food substances
  47. heat
    form of energy
  48. pressure
    force of something. (pressure is important in breathing)
  49. homeostasis
    stable internal environment
  50. metabolism
    the total sum of all of the chemical reactions in the body that break substances down and build them up.
  51. level of organization
    atom, molecule, macromolecule, organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
  52. characteristics of life.
    movement, responsiveness, growth, respiration, digestion, absorption, circulation, assimilation, excretion.
Card Set
human anatomy and physiology
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