Psych Midterm 1

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Psych Midterm 1
2011-09-03 15:37:02

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  1. The Nervous Systems
    Behavior changes result from minor brain damage, brain scans show entire activity over the whole brain.
  2. Neurons:
    1 billion neurons and 1 trillion connection specialized for communication. monitor our internal/external environment. controls our behavior/create
  3. Cell Body:
    central region of cell
  4. Dendrites
    receive signals from other neurons
  5. Axon
    delivers signals to other cells
  6. Peripheral Nervous System:
    consists of nerves that connect muscles and genes
  7. Corpus Callosum:
    band of tissue that connects the two hemispheres and allows them to communicate
  8. Primary sensory areas
    primary visual cortex, auditory cortex, somatosensoy cortex process specific sensory input
  9. Frontal Lobe:
    involved in motion and higher order
  10. Motor Cortex:
    controls motions, sends signals to motor neurons
  11. Broca’s Area
    is a region of the hominid[1] brain with functions linked to speech production
  12. Aphasia:
    is an impairment of language ability. This class of language disorder ranges from having difficulty remembering words to being completely unable to speak, read, or write.
  13. Parietal Lobe:
    (on top of your head) important for touch sensation, perception, object recognition, number rep. plays important roles in integrating sensory information from various parts of the body, knowledge of numbers and their relations,[1] and in the manipulation of objects
  14. Temporal Lobe:
    important for auditory sensation, understanding language and autobiography
  15. Wernicke’s Area:
    It is involved in the understanding of written and spoken language.Wernicke’s Aphasia: inability to comprehend speech
  16. Broca’s Aphasia:
    inability to produce speech
  17. Occipital Lobe:
    important for vision:processes visual information (cup the back of the brain)
  18. Topographic Organization;
    adjacent portions of cortex controls adjacent body parts
  19. Basal Ganglia:
    responsible for executing planned actions: implicated in Parkinson’s disease
  20. Lymbic System:
    hypothalamus regulates internal environment of body by controlling autonomic nervous system: controls hormone levels, drives states, hunger, and thirst
  21. Nervous system:
    controls hormone levels, drives states, hunger, and thirst
  22. Cingulate Cortex:
    component of the limbic system of the brain, responsible for producing emotional responses to physical sensations of pain
  23. Cortex:
    : divided into two hemisphere. contra-laterally, information from the right side of the body is processed to the left (like reversing in car)
  24. Thalamus:
    relay station of the brain, it directs signals passing between body and the brain
  25. Midbrain:
    modulation of motor activity, modulation of motor actvity subcortial structions
  26. Cerebellum:
    important for balance, coordination, preplanned action (small brain) football throwing action
  27. Pons:
    maintain balance: contains the sleep paralysis center of the brain and also plays a role in generating dreams.
  28. Medulla:
    maintain balance, regulate heart rate, and breathing
  29. Synapse:
    junction between two connecting neurons
  30. Somatic Nervous System:
    carries signals between central nervous system and muscles in the body that control movement
  31. Hypothalamus:
    important for memory and forming new memories
  32. Amygdala:
    involved for memory and forming new memories
  33. Autonomic Nervous System:
    carries signals between the central nervous system and organs. glands that regulate involuntary actions and boy’s internal state
  34. Sympathetic Nervous System
    readies body for action: increases heart rate, dialates, pupils, inhibits digestion. fight or flight response
  35. Parasympathetic Nervous System
    active during rest, slows heart breathing rates, stimulates digestion, responsible for rest and digestion
  36. Spinal Chord:
    Carries sensory information to the brain, motor control, commands back to body manages simple reflexes and movements. serves to increase speed of important reflexes.
  37. Cognition:
    such as reasoning, planning, and language production: involves mood and personality
  38. Phineas Gage
    famous case of damage: noteable areas: prefrontal cortex, motor cortex, broca’s areas
  39. Synaptic Clef:
    space between two neurons where neurotransmitter is released
  40. Synaptic Vesicles:
    spherical sacs containing nuerotransmitters
  41. Neurotransmitters:
    chemical messengers specialized for communication and released at teh synapse
  42. Glial Cells:
    Support cells in nervous systems that play roles in the formation of myelin and blood-brain barrier
  43. Myelin Sheath:
    glial cells wrappers around axons that act as insulators of the neuron’s signal
  44. Absolute Refractory Period:
    recovery time when another ap (action potential?) is not possible
  45. Sensory Neurons:
    hand on fire
  46. Interneurons:
    make it stop
  47. Motorneurons:
    stops the fire
  48. Split Brain Surgery:
    two halves cannot communicate, people function fairly normally. lateralized: some functions are only functioned by one hemisphere
  49. Lateralization:
    some functions are only processed by one hemisphere
  50. Severe Epilespy:
    promoted severing of the corpus collosum: no communication between hemisphere
  51. LEFT : SPEECH more of an interpretor RIGHT: Recognition of faces
  52. Sensation
    detection of physical energy by sense organs cells in the eye, nose, ear, skin, and tongue
  53. Perception
    brain’s interpretation of raw sensory input
  54. Sensory Adaption
    a stimulus is stronger when we first sense it after that the sense declines in strength happens are the level of the sensory receptor
  55. Absolute Threshold:
    the lowest level of stimulus that we can detect 50% hear it 50% of time then you can hear that level
  56. Just Noticeable Difference:
    smallest change we can sense stimulus intensity: test change we can sense stimulus intensity.
  57. Perception
    is a direct translation of sensory input we use more than sensory input to make sense of the world
  58. Signal To Noise Ratio:
    stimulus is unclear so our brain its best guess
  59. Perceptual Constancy
    the process by which we perceive stimuli consistency across varying conditions
  60. Shape Constancy:
    door : looks different we see as the same thing
  61. Color Constancy:
    checkerboard: darker spot vs. lighter; brain adjusts
  62. Pupil:
    holes (the black part, hole: allows light into the eyes)
  63. Iris:
    colored part, muscles that controls the pupil
  64. Cornea:
    outside covering that helps focus light
  65. Lens:
    disc that focuses the light on the back of the eyes
  66. Retina:
    membrane on the back of the eye containing: sensory receptors
  67. Fovea:
    area on retina where light is focused:
  68. Optic Nerve:
    transmit visual to rest of the brain
  69. Myopia:
    nearsighted light focuses too soon
  70. Hyperopia:
    farsighted: light focuses too late: the lens inverts the image as it focuses it
  71. Photorecptors:
    visual sensory receptor. located in the retina
  72. Rods:
    sense dim light: rods are working slowly to adjust: concetrated in the periphery
  73. Ganglion Cell:
    Carries Visual Information to from the eye to the brain: from the optic nerve, blind spot
  74. Cones:
    sense bright light and color: concentrated at the fovea
  75. Color Vision: Subtractive Color Mixing:
    mix pigments which in turn absorb more light and gets darker (paints work this way)
  76. Additive Color Mixing
    mixing colored lights which in turn gets brighter (lights work this way )
  77. Trichromatic Theory:
    color is based on 3 primary colors: blue, green, and red. 3 cones respond to blue, green, or red. pattern of activity: between different types: allows us to see all possible colors.
  78. Opponent Process Theory:
    idea that we perceive things as red,green,blue, or yellow, light or dark. color must inhibit each other Ganglion Cells: function as opponent neurons: excited by one color and inhibited by another.
  79. Color Blindness:
    occurs when one cone is missing: called dichromatic vision
  80. Bottom Up Processing:
    processesing drive by sensory input, perceiving and object based on it’s edges. processing can be seen as starting with no knowledge on a subject.It is said to occur when one draws generalizations from particular examples, instances, cases etc. to capture commonalities between them.
  81. Top Down Processing
    process driven primarily by concepts, beliefs, or expectations, objects + contex Top down processing can be seen as processing what one is perceiving using past information.It occurs when someone infers from a generalization,law etc. to conclude something about a particular example, instance, case etc.
  82. Feature Integration Theory:
    objects are made of features we perceive separately: color, shape, etc. the brain detects teh features and integrates them into a whole object.
  83. Feature Detection
    involves paralel processing, all features can be sense at once
  84. Feature Integration:
    each object must be integrate one at a time.
  85. Gestalt Perception of Grouping:
    cues that help us group features or parts into whole objects
  86. Proximity
    : physically close things are grouped
  87. Similarity:
    similar things are grouped to form a whole
  88. Good Continuation:
    continuous things are grouped closure: gaps and borders are ignored to form a whole
  89. Monocular Depth Cues:
    used to interpet with just one eye. relative size, distant objects, textured gradient, texture of distant objects is less clear, interpretation: closer objects block futher ones, height in plane, light and shadows.
  90. Motion Paralax:
    further things pass by slower
  91. Binocular Depth Cues:
    binocular disparity: difference in retinal images: slight difference in the view from each eye
  92. Binocular Convergence:
    difference in visual angle
  93. Visual Cliff:
    • 5 months: were willing to crawl
    • 6-14 refused to cross cliff:depth perception:develops with age and experience
  94. synesthesia:
    blending of the senses: believed to be result from connections in the brain between certain areas
  95. Visual Illusion:
    brain using things around to gage: moon illusion
  96. Ponzo Illusion
    change blingness: pay attention:
  97. Sensory Memory:
    everything you sense goes into sensory memory: hold information long enough: pay attention to it.
  98. Preattentive Processing:
    filter information: priming
  99. Sperling Experiment:
    showed 12 letters for less than a second: no one could write all of them.
  100. Partial Report Technique
    told you what to write down. it was easier
  101. Iconic Memory
    visual sensory memory, last <1 second.
  102. Echoic Memory:
    auditory sensory memory, last a few seconds, cocktail party effect, predisposed to things important to you
  103. Short-Term Memory:
    working memry, attention transfers info from sensory memory to short term memory, area of consciousness, separate divisions
  104. Phonological Loop:
    auditory short term memory
  105. Visuo Spatial Sketchpad:
    visual short term memory
  106. Central Executive:
    coordinates the mind’s activities and brign new info into the short term memory
  107. Decay:
    fade away
  108. Interference:
    loss of information due to competition with other information
  109. Retroactive inhibition:
    new info prevents old information
  110. Proactive inhibition:
    old information preventrs new information Magic Number
  111. Chunking:
    combining bits of info into meaning groups
  112. Chess Board Experiment:
    experts chunked location into meaning patterns.
  113. Rehearsal
    maintenance rehearsal: repeating info to keep it in short term memory
  114. Elaborative Rehearsal
    ink info in a meaningful way to improve short term model
  115. Levels of Processing
    the more deeply we process information the better we remember it
  116. Long-Term Memory:
    our permanent store of information: includes facts, skills, experiences. long duration, and unlimited capacity.
  117. Primacy Effect:
    tendancy to remember wods from the beginning of the list words. words get encoded into our LONG TERM memory.
  118. Recency Effect:
    tendency to remember words from the end of the list: stored in our short term memory.
  119. Semantic Memory:
    knowledge of facts, episodic memory, autobiographic memory.
  120. Explicit Memory:
    conscious memory we recall intentionally.
  121. Implicit Memory:
    unconscious memory we do not reflect on deliberately
  122. Procedural Memory:
    memory of how to do things: including motor skills or habits
  123. Encoding
    mechanism that transfers info from short term to long term: maintenance, rehearsal, elaborate rehearsal
  124. Encoding Specificity
    we remember info better under conditions present at learning (sit in the same seat you were sitting in)
  125. Context dependent learning:
    state dependant learning; we recall information better in the same place we learned it
  126. Godden and Baddeley:
    scubadivers learn lists of words either on land or under water: they test them either in the same or opposite enviornment
  127. State dependent learning
    we recall information better in the same congitive state we learn it in: psychological state, physiological state
  128. False Memories:
    memories of events that never happened: case Elizabeth Loftus: recovered during therapy. can be damaging.
  129. misinformation effect:
    creating false memories by providing misleading info after the event.
  130. Loftus and Palmer:
    asked people to estimate teh sppe of the car who smashed or contacted (infect memories) Lost in the mall experiment: not really lost
  131. Cross Race Identification:
    poor when people are stressed. presence of gun lowers reliability, culprit is not there in sequential line up.
  132. Retrograde Amnesia
    loss of episodic memory: implic and semantic memories remain intactAnterograde amnesa: specifically an inability to form new explicit memories implicit memories stay in tact
  133. HM:
    Hippocampi removed to prevent seizures: severe anterograde amnesia uanble to form new memories, no explict memory, but his procedural memory remained in tact.
  134. Clive Wearing:
    hippcampi was damaged by viral infection: severe antegrade amnesia
  135. Learning
    • change in behavior
    • resulting from experience.
  136. Stimulus
    • anything in the environment to which an organism
    • might react.
  137. Response
    • any behavior resulting
    • from a stimulus.
  138. Habituation
    • decrease in reaction to
    • a repeated stimulus
    • Habituation is the
    • simplest form of learning.

  139. Behaviorism
    • Early field of psychology that focused only on
    • observables

    • usually changes in behaviorism

    • treated the mind as a black box

  140. Classical conditioning
    • A new stimulus begins to elicit the same
    • response as another stimuli, when they occur together.

    • Elicits an automatic response (reflex)

    • Discovered by Ivan Pavlov, a pyshiologist
    • interested in digestion.

  141. Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) = food

    Unconditioned response (UCR) = salivate

    Conditioned stimulus (CS) = bell

    Conditioned response (CR) = salivate to bell
  142. Pairing
    • learning occurs when the CS is paired reliably
    • with the UCS.
  143. Extinction –
    • decrease or diappearance
    • of the CS when it is no longer paired with UCS
  144. Stimulus generalization
    • when stimuli similar to
    • the CS elicit a CR (Baby Albert experiment - white rabbit and white santa claus
    • beard)

  145. Advertising and higher-order conditioning
    • Advertising conditions
    • consumers to associate a product with positive feelings.

  146. Operant Conditioning
    • Acquiring behaviors as a result of the outcome
    • or consequence of those behaviors

    • behavior results from reqard and punishment
  147. Different from Classical Conditioning
    • Different from classical conditioning

    • Organism's response is generally voluntary

    • Rewards are dependent on organism's response
  148. Thorndike's law of
    • if a response, in the presence of a stimulus, is
    • followed by a satisfying state of affiars, the bond between stimulus and
    • response will be strengthened.

    • According to Throndike and others, learning
    • involves an association between a stimulus and response, with the reqard
    • stamping in this connection.
  149. B. F. Skinner
    • famous behaviorist

    • Developed a highly efficient conditioning
    • chamber called the “Skinner Box”

    • Reinforcement and punishment
  150. Positive reinforcement –
    • pleasant stimulus is given to increase a
    • certain behavior.
  151. Negative reinforcement
    • unpleasant stimulus is removed
    • to increase a certain behavior (cutting the crust off a sandwich, getting
    • braces off)
  152. Positive punishment
    • unpleasant stimulus is given
    • to decease a certain behavior (shock collars on dogs, spanking)
  153. Negative punishment –
    • pleasant stimulus is removed
    • to decrease a certain behavior (grounded and losing privledges, prison)
  154. Partial reinforcement
    • reinforcing behaviors occasionally, rather than
    • always
  155. Partial reinforcement
    • is harder to extinguish because you
    • don't expect to get rewarded everytime (gambling).
  156. Fixed ratio
    • – reinforcement after a
    • fixed number of responses (6 quarters for 1 soda)
  157. Fixed interval
    • reinforcement after a
    • fixed amount of time (paycheck every 2 weeks, watched kettle never boils)
  158. Variable ratio
    • reinforcement after a
    • varying number or responses (lotto scratchers and slot machines)
  159. Variable interval
    • reinforcement after a
    • varying amount of time (unpredicable weather, waiting in line)
  160. Shaping

    • Shaping – rewarding behaviors that come closer
    • and closer to a target behavior (fetching)

    • Applied behavior analysis and autism

  161. Limitations in operant conditioning

    behaviorists thought all learning resulted from
    reinforcement or punishment
  162. Latent learning
    • the things you learn on
    • your own)
  163. Bandura's “Bobo Doll”
    Experiment (1961)
    • Preschool children watched actors behave
    • aggressively toward a “Bobo doll”.
    • Children were then allowed to play with Bobo themselves. Children who watched other people behave
    • aggressively toward Bobo also behaed aggressively – proof of observational
    • learning. The children also invented new
    • ways to attack Bobo.

    • No reward or punishment, just learned through
    • watching.
  164. taste aversion
    • a conditioned disgust reaction to certain foods
    • after sickness

    • taste aversion differs from classical
    • conditioning!

    • Needs only one pairing of CS and UCS