micro L3/4 bacteria.txt

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  1. T/F After growth and division, bacteria are twins?
  2. What type of graph do bacteria demonstrate during growth?
  3. 4444444444What are the five phases & definitiosn of the exponential growth chart for bacteria?
    • 1) Lag phase: no cell division, increase in biomass due to macromolecules
    • 2) Exponential (log) Phase: cell division, produce primary mtabolite and virulence factors
    • 3) Late log phase: transition, secondary metabolites produced (antibiotics/pigments)
    • 4) Stationary phase: zero growth, no nutrition available
    • 5) Decline/Death: exponential death, determined only by CFU test
  4. What two measures are used for measuring baterial growth?
    • 1) Optical Density: Measures all cells
    • 2) Colony forming unit: measures viable cells
  5. What are the five types of bacterial cultivation media?
    • Defined
    • complex
    • enriched
    • selective
    • differential
  6. What type of Media is MacConkey Agar?
    Selective and differential
  7. What are three sources of metabolic energy?
    • Photosynthesis
    • Respiration
    • Fermentation
  8. T/F anaerobic respiration = fermentation
    F, they are not equal
  9. Common carbon sources for nutrition?
    • **Glucose
    • Lactose
    • Sucrose
  10. What are three basic Growth factors and their products?
    • Amino Acids = proteins
    • Pyrimidines and Purines = nucleic acids
    • Vitamins = coenzymes
  11. What are the five environmental factors affecting bacterial growth?
    • Temperature
    • pH
    • Oxygen
    • Carbon Dioxide
    • Water
  12. When it comes to environment, what is the difference b/t obligate & facultative bacteria?
    • Obligate: no alternative, narrow range of conditions
    • Facultative:alternatives, wide range of conditions
  13. Optimum bacterial growth temperature range?
  14. What are the five temperature range bacteria?
    • 1) Psychrophiles
    • 2) Psychrotrophs
    • 3) Mesophiles
    • 4) Thermophiles
    • 5) Hyperthermophiles
  15. Obligate psychrophiles and their range
    • Cold marine environments
    • <20C
  16. Facultative psychrophiles/psychrotrophs and temp range
    • Refrigerated conditions
    • 0-35C
  17. Thermophiles and Hyperthermophiles and temp range
    • Hot springs, geysers, volcanoes, etc...
    • Thermophiles: > 50C
    • Hyperthermophiles: >80C
  18. For pH, what are the three bacteria categories and which is most common?
    • Acidophile
    • **Neutrophile: pH 7.0
    • Alkaphile
  19. Name three enzymes to counteract ROS?
    • Catalase
    • Superoxide dismutase
    • peroxidase
  20. Which bacteria require high CO2?
  21. Three classes of bacteria that utilize water?
    • Halophiles: High salt
    • Osmophiles: high osmolarity/sugar
    • Resistant to dessication
  22. What two bacteria commonly form spores?
    • Bacillus
    • Clostridium
  23. What bacteria form cell wall modifications?
  24. Which is more dangerous, BSL-1 or BSL-4?
  25. What is the most important method to reduce transmission of pathogens?
    Hand washing
  26. To use an alcohol wash, what should be its concentration?
    >62% alcohol
  27. Three methods of bacterial transmission
    • 1) Contact
    • 2) Droplet >5micrometers
    • 3) Airborne <5micrometers
  28. Name the three decontamination materials?
    • Critical
    • Semi-critical
    • Non-critical
  29. What is Critical?
    contact with sterile tissue or vascular system
  30. What is semi-critical?
    contact w/ non-intact skin or mucous membranes
  31. What is non-critical?
    no contact with mucous membranes or sterile tissue
  32. What is sterilization?
    destroys all microbial life + spores
  33. What is disinfection?
    destroys nearly all microbial life
  34. What is decontamination?
    reduces microbes to acceptable level
  35. What is cleaning?
    remove visible dirt
  36. Name the four microbial control methods?
    • Dry heat
    • Moist heat
    • Filtration
    • Radiation
  37. How long should water be boiled to be safe?
    1 minute
  38. how long should medical instruments be sterilized?
    20-30 minutes
  39. What is the common method and temp for pasteurization?
    • Method: HTST (high temp, short time)
    • Temp: 72C for 15s
  40. What is more effective than dry heat at eliminating spores and denaturing proteins?
  41. What are the three UV Radiations?
  42. Range and example of UVA?
    long 400-315 - Blacklight
  43. Range and example of UVB?
    medium 315-280 - Vitamin D & sunburns
  44. Range and example of UVC?
    Short 280-100 - germicidal (won't penetrate atmosphere)
  45. What rays penetrate packaging?
    Gamma rays
  46. diff b/t cidal and static?
    • cidal: Dead
    • Static: not dead but not growing
  47. What are the two tests for chemical agent classification?
    • MBC: Minimum bactericidal concentration
    • MIC: Minimum inhibitory concentration
  48. What is biocide?
    kills living organisms (antimicrobials and pesticides)
  49. What is antimicrobial?
    kills or inhibits growth of microorganisms
  50. What is disinfectant?
    kills or inhibits growth of microbes on objects or surfaces
  51. What is antiseptic?
    kills or inhibits growth of microbes on living tissue (mouthwash)
  52. What is Antibiotic?
    Kills or inhibits bacteria
  53. Name the three levels of disinfectants?
    • High
    • Intermediate
    • Low
  54. What is high-level disinfectant?
    kills all microorganisms except spores
  55. What is intermediate disinfectant?
    kills mycobacteria, veg. bacteria, viruses and fungi but not spores
  56. What is low level disinfectant?
    Kills veg. bacteria, some viruses and fungi, but not spores
  57. Six common topic/oral antiseptics?
    • Alcohol
    • Hydrogen peroxide
    • Iodine
    • Heavy metal compounds
    • Phenol compounds
    • Quaternary ammonium compounds
  58. When is an alcohol cleaner ineffective?
    When in presence of organic material (should clean debris off first)
  59. When is alcohol more affective?
    When diluted w/ water
  60. What three chemicals can't be autoclaved?
    • Aldehydes
    • Ethylene oxide
    • Peroxides
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micro L3/4 bacteria.txt
micro L3/4 bacteria
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