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What is Psychology
the study of mental process and behavior
What is Skepticism
questioning what everyone knows. one can become a critical thinker by reflecting deeply and actively asking questions and evaluating evidence.
Who was Wundt
a german philospher physician who founded the first psychology lab in 1879 and proposed structuralism
What is introspection
looking inside the mind
What is functionalism
the function and purpose of the mind and behavior in the individuals adaptation to environment by James
What did Darwin argue to determine the physical traits of survival
organisms that are best adapted to their environment will survive and reproduce
What are the goals of psychology
to describe, predict, and explain
How can animals be used ehtically in scientific research
feeding, housing, pyschological and physical well being
What is bias
non neutral representation, influences the outcome of research
What is the placebo effect
when a participants expectations, rather than the experinment influence the outcome
What is a double-blind study
when neither the participant nor the experinmentor knows who is in the experinment nor control group
What is a sample? How does it differ from the population?
population is the entire group, a sample is a small portion of the population
What is naturalistic observation?
involves being in a control setting
What are the measures of central tendency?
- median- middle
- mode- repeated
- range- big-small
How do scientist typically determine statistical significance?
from the data and the hypothesis, meta-analysis
What is meta-analysis?
statistical procedure that summarizes a large body of evidence from the research literature on a specific topic
What is a confederate?
person who is given a role to play in a study so that the social context can be manipulated
What is an operational definition?
provides an objective description of how a variable is going to be measured and observed in a experinment
What is a case study?
a study about one individual
What is random assignment?
something is selected by chance randomly
What are the independent and dependent variables?
- independent-manipulated by experinmentor
- dependent- result in change by the independent variable
What are the experinment and controol groups?
- experinment recieves the drugs
- control is not manipulated dont recieve drugs
What is IRB?
Internal Review Board
What is required in ethical study?
- informed consent
What are informed consent, debriefing, and confidentality?
- Informed Consent- recieving permission from parent of a minor or consent from 18yrs older
- Debriefing-telling the person what happen at end of the study
Where do most psychologist work?
In an acedemic setting
What are internal and external validity?
- Internal-are independent variable changes the result of independent variable manipulation, bias and logical errors
- External- represent real world issues, do results generalize real world
What is the scientific method?
- Formulate hypothesis and prediction
- Test through empricial research
- Evaluate theory
What is a variable?
anything that can be changed
How often are animals used in psychological research?
- rats and mice used 90% of time
Who are the most famous names associated with the behavioral, humanistic, and psychodynamic approaches.
- Psychodynamic- Sigmund Freud
- Behavioral- Watson and Skinner
- Humanistic- Rogers and Maslow
How are psychiatrist and clinical psychologist different and how are they the similar?
- Clinical psychologist involves a doctorate degree and can perscribe medicine
- Pyschiatrist involves a medical degree and cannot perscribe medicine
- they are similar in wanting to help improve the lives of people.
What is a theory? How is it related to and different from a hypothesis?
- Hypothesis is an educated guess
- Theory is more of an idea to explain observations and to make predictions about future observations
- A hypothesis derives from a theory
What is the survey method of research? What might such research involve?
A survey presents a standard set of questions or items to obtain people self reports about a particular topic such as religious beliefs, census, sex, and gun control
What is a correlation study? How does it differ from experinment research?
- Correlation- research between relationships and variables, examining if and how two variabkes change together not involving causation
- Experinment- involves causation
- -1.00<r<1.00 positive ^^
- 1.00 perfect negative opposite
- .76-.99 very strong
- .51-.75 strong
- .26-.50 moderate
- .01-.25 weak
- .00 none
- ( the closer to 1 the stronger the relationship .34 is weaker than .76)
What is generally accepted mininum level of probability for determining that observed differences are genuine and not simply due to cance alone?
Know all the subspecialities in psychology.
- pyschological and behavioral neuroscience
- sensation and perception
- cognitive and psychology
- motivation and emotion
- school and educational
- industrial and organizational
- forensic, sport, cross cultural
- developnment psychology
- psychology of women and gender
- clinical and counseling