pyschology

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taniqua92
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99612
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pyschology
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2011-09-03 16:40:20
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psychology study guide
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  1. What is Psychology
    the study of mental process and behavior
  2. What is Skepticism
    questioning what everyone knows. one can become a critical thinker by reflecting deeply and actively asking questions and evaluating evidence.
  3. Who was Wundt
    a german philospher physician who founded the first psychology lab in 1879 and proposed structuralism
  4. What is introspection
    looking inside the mind
  5. What is functionalism
    the function and purpose of the mind and behavior in the individuals adaptation to environment by James
  6. What did Darwin argue to determine the physical traits of survival
    organisms that are best adapted to their environment will survive and reproduce
  7. What are the goals of psychology
    to describe, predict, and explain
  8. How can animals be used ehtically in scientific research
    feeding, housing, pyschological and physical well being
  9. What is bias
    non neutral representation, influences the outcome of research
  10. What is the placebo effect
    when a participants expectations, rather than the experinment influence the outcome
  11. What is a double-blind study
    when neither the participant nor the experinmentor knows who is in the experinment nor control group
  12. What is a sample? How does it differ from the population?
    population is the entire group, a sample is a small portion of the population
  13. What is naturalistic observation?
    involves being in a control setting
  14. What are the measures of central tendency?
    • mean-average
    • median- middle
    • mode- repeated
    • range- big-small
  15. How do scientist typically determine statistical significance?
    from the data and the hypothesis, meta-analysis
  16. What is meta-analysis?
    statistical procedure that summarizes a large body of evidence from the research literature on a specific topic
  17. What is a confederate?
    person who is given a role to play in a study so that the social context can be manipulated
  18. What is an operational definition?
    provides an objective description of how a variable is going to be measured and observed in a experinment
  19. What is a case study?
    a study about one individual
  20. What is random assignment?
    something is selected by chance randomly
  21. What are the independent and dependent variables?
    • independent-manipulated by experinmentor
    • dependent- result in change by the independent variable
  22. What are the experinment and controol groups?
    • experinment recieves the drugs
    • control is not manipulated dont recieve drugs
  23. What is IRB?
    Internal Review Board
  24. What is required in ethical study?
    • informed consent
    • confedentality
    • deception
    • debrefing
  25. What are informed consent, debriefing, and confidentality?
    • Confidentality-privacy
    • Informed Consent- recieving permission from parent of a minor or consent from 18yrs older
    • Debriefing-telling the person what happen at end of the study
  26. Where do most psychologist work?
    In an acedemic setting
  27. What are internal and external validity?
    • Internal-are independent variable changes the result of independent variable manipulation, bias and logical errors
    • External- represent real world issues, do results generalize real world
  28. What is the scientific method?
    • Observe
    • Formulate hypothesis and prediction
    • Test through empricial research
    • Drawconclusion
    • Evaluate theory
  29. What is a variable?
    anything that can be changed
  30. How often are animals used in psychological research?
    • 5%
    • rats and mice used 90% of time
  31. Who are the most famous names associated with the behavioral, humanistic, and psychodynamic approaches.
    • Psychodynamic- Sigmund Freud
    • Behavioral- Watson and Skinner
    • Humanistic- Rogers and Maslow
  32. How are psychiatrist and clinical psychologist different and how are they the similar?
    • Clinical psychologist involves a doctorate degree and can perscribe medicine
    • Pyschiatrist involves a medical degree and cannot perscribe medicine
    • they are similar in wanting to help improve the lives of people.
  33. What is a theory? How is it related to and different from a hypothesis?
    • Hypothesis is an educated guess
    • Theory is more of an idea to explain observations and to make predictions about future observations
    • A hypothesis derives from a theory
  34. What is the survey method of research? What might such research involve?
    A survey presents a standard set of questions or items to obtain people self reports about a particular topic such as religious beliefs, census, sex, and gun control
  35. What is a correlation study? How does it differ from experinment research?
    • Correlation- research between relationships and variables, examining if and how two variabkes change together not involving causation
    • Experinment- involves causation
  36. Correlation Values
    • -1.00<r<1.00 positive ^^
    • 1.00 perfect negative opposite
    • .76-.99 very strong
    • .51-.75 strong
    • .26-.50 moderate
    • .01-.25 weak
    • .00 none
    • ( the closer to 1 the stronger the relationship .34 is weaker than .76)
  37. What is generally accepted mininum level of probability for determining that observed differences are genuine and not simply due to cance alone?
    0.05
  38. Know all the subspecialities in psychology.
    • pyschological and behavioral neuroscience
    • sensation and perception
    • cognitive and psychology
    • motivation and emotion
    • personality
    • health
    • school and educational
    • industrial and organizational
    • learning
    • forensic, sport, cross cultural
    • developnment psychology
    • psychology of women and gender
    • social
    • clinical and counseling
    • community
    • environmental

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