LPN

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Author:
glassesface
ID:
99618
Filename:
LPN
Updated:
2011-09-06 08:44:29
Tags:
Chem
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Description:
Chemistry
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  1. 1st Spacing
    normal fluid distribution
  2. 2nd Spacing
    • abnormal accumulation of interstitial fluid
    • ie: edema
  3. 3rd Spacing
    abnormal fluid accumulation in cavaties where it doesn't belong
  4. Acid
    an electrolyte that dissociates into a hydrogen ion (H+) and an anion
  5. Interstitial
    between the cells
  6. Base
    • a substance that combines with H+ and eliminates H+
    • neutralizes an acid by producing water and salt
  7. Normal blood pH
    7.35 - 7.45
  8. What controls pH of internal fluids?
    • Kidneys
    • Respiratory System
    • Buffer System
  9. Elements
    • pure
    • fundamental substance
  10. Compound
    is a substance that is formed by two or more different atoms
  11. Atomic Number
    number of protons
  12. Atomic Weight
    protons + neutrons
  13. Isotopes
    • Different form of the same atom
    • same atomic number
    • different atomic weight
  14. Radioisotopes
    unstable nuclei decay and give off particles or energy waves, radioactivity
  15. Chemical Reactions
    the process whereby one chemical substance is converted into a different chemical substance
  16. Solution
    combination of solvent + solute
  17. Functions of Water
    • Solvent - carries O2 and dissolves CO2
    • Chemical Reactions - aids in digestion
    • Thermoregulator - evaporation of sweat, takes away large amounts of heat
    • Lubricant
    • Baths cells
    • Protection - CSF
  18. Fluid Compartment
    Intracellular
    2/3 water are inside the cell
  19. Fluid Compartment
    Extracellular
    • 1/3 water is outside the cell
    • intravacular - blood and lymph
    • interstitial - tissue fluid between the cells
    • special cavaties - CSF, bursa, aqeous humor
  20. 4 Main Elements of the body
    • Oxygen
    • Carbon
    • Hydrogen
    • Nitrogen
  21. pH
    • Parts Hydrogen
    • measure of h+ concentration
  22. Valence Shell
    outer electron shell
  23. Ion
    electrically charged atom
  24. Chemical Bonds
    • formed through interaction of atoms
    • the electrical attraction
  25. Ionic Bond
    transfer of electrons
  26. Covalent
    sharing of electrons
  27. Electrolyte
    a substance that forms ions when it dissolves in water
  28. Decompostion
    breaking down
  29. Sythesize
    to build
  30. Mg++
    magnesium/elctolyte
    • 1.5 - 2.5
    • regulates intracellular activity
    • regulates Na, K, Ca, Phosphorus
  31. Cl-
    chloride/ electrolyte
    • 100 - 108
    • primary extracellular anion
  32. NH4+
    Ammonium
    acid/ base regulation
  33. K+
    potassium
    • 3.8 - 5.5
    • nerve and muscle
    • chief intracellular cation
    • kidney function
  34. H+
    hydrogen
    acid/ base balance
  35. Na+
    sodium
    • 135 - 145
    • fluid balance
    • principle extracellular cation
    • nerve/ muscle
  36. Ca++
    calcium
    • 4.5 - 5.5
    • bone/ teeth
    • blood clotting
    • muscle contraction
  37. Buffer System
    compounds that are added to a soulution to prevent sudden changes in pH
  38. Buffer System
    strong base
    • NaOH + H2CO3 - H2O + NaHCO3
    • sodium hydroxide + carbonic acid - water + sodium bicarbonate
  39. Buffer System
    Strong Acid
    • HCl + NaHCO3 - NaCl + H2CO3
    • hydrochloric acid + sodium bicarbonate - salt + carbonic acid
  40. HCO3
    bicarbonate
    • buffer system
    • acid/ base regulation

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